and human healthcare expenditures, 4 payment plans either through third parties or clinic-backed, 5 and (in rare cases) bartering. 6 In all of these cases, the idea is to alleviate the Pain of Payment phenomenon experienced when paying for services
Clayton HM Schamhardt HC . Measurement techniques for gait analysis . In: Back W Clayton HM , eds. Equine locomotion . London : WB Saunders Co , 2001 ; 55 – 76 .
Back W van den Bogert AJ van Weeren PR
The musculoskeletal system is a primary cause of poor performance in athletic horses, and its management is at the heart of equine medicine. 1 , 2 Within this system, the axial skeleton and more specifically the back are
Objective—To evaluate back movement during walking
Animals—22 adult horses with no history or signs of
Procedure—3-dimensional movements of markers
on the hooves, head, and back were measured with a
motion analysis system while the horses were walking
on a treadmill. The positions of markers on the
hooves, head, and the skin above the spinous
processes of T5, T10, T16, L3, and 2 sacral vertebrae
were recorded. From a minimum of 6 walking motion
cycles/horse, marker movement and the time of
occurrence of minimum and maximum marker positions
within the motion cycle were determined.
Angles were calculated between the markers on the
head, T16, and S4 or S5 and between the markers on
T5, T16, and S4 or S5.
Results—Lateral back movement was maximal at L3,
where it reached (mean ± SD) 3.5 ± 0.8% of the horses'
height at the withers. Maximum dorsoventral
back movement was found at the sacrum, where it
reached 4.7 ± 1.3% of the height at the withers. In
the horizontal plane, the angle between T5, T16, and
S4 or S5 was altered by 11 ± 2.5° during the motion
cycle. In the sagittal plane, the angle between the
head, T16, and S4 or S5 was altered by 7 ± 3°.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
this study may be used as basic kinematic reference
data for evaluation of back movement in horses. (Am
J Vet Res 2001;62:1173–1179)
successfully used to record changes in muscle activity. 13,14 In humans with experimentally induced unilateral back pain, SEMG of the left and right back muscles revealed an asymmetric profile, which persisted even when the individuals overcame their guarding
Crowding and overriding of the dorsal spinous processes (DSPs) or “kissing spine syndrome” is a common condition in horses, sometimes associated with back pain. The dichotomy between radiographic and clinical signs creates a
service in organized veterinary medicine. Volunteering for state VMAs, allied organizations, and the AVMA's councils, committees, panels, and task forces is a great way to give back. Today, the AVMA is fortunate to have more than 600 incredible volunteers
horse's head and neck is important to achieve goal. 1 Studies 1–4 have demonstrated that a change in head and neck position influences back kinematics and the loading pattern of the locomotor apparatus in unridden and ridden high-level dressage horses
back to my days at the Louisiana State University (LSU) School of Veterinary Medicine, where I served as class representative and treasurer of the LSU AVMA student chapter. After attending my first AVMA Veterinary Leadership Conference in 1999, I knew