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. The position of the incisor arcades, the movement of the mandible during extension and flexion of the atlanto-occipital joint, and the effects of routine dental floating on mandibular movement in horses have been previously described. 3,4 However, the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ultrasonographic images of the left (B) and right (C) atlanto-occipital joint of a 5-month-old Thoroughbred colt with a history of unilateral epistaxis and abnormal head-neck posture (cranial is toward the left). Diagnostic Imaging Findings and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, this was suspected to be a fibrous union given the time duration between radiographs. The atlanto-occipital joint appeared within normal limits. The owner was advised to slowly bring the horse back into ridden work but to continue to monitor for any

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and pterygoideus medialis muscles, which extended caudodorsally up to the level of the left atlanto-occipital joint. These abnormalities were suspected to be secondary to synovial fluid leakage and associated myositis, and less likely a result of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

primarily used as an index for pharyngeal collapsibility. 10 In previous studies of humans 4 and dogs, 11 it was found that the Pcrit increases and decreases when the atlanto-occipital joint is manipulated and the head is flexed and extended

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

revealing complete luxation of the atlanto-occipital joint with a left lateral and slight rotational displacement of C1 and overriding of the occipital condyles (OCs) and C1. There are several small bone fragments (arrow), presumed avulsion fractures of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the atlanto-occipital joint for horse 3. Note lateral compression of the dura by the right occipital condyle (O; arrowhead), which was considered to be an incidental finding because it was seen on only the right (gravity-dependent) side (each horse

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

extended into the soft tissues dorsal to the left ear canal and medially occupied the left half of the caudal fossa and dorsal one third of the foramen magnum. The mass did not appear to invade the atlanto-occipital joint. Figure 1— Transverse

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

nothing other than this feed prior to euthanasia. They were euthanatized by means of IV administration of a mixture of pentobarbital a and embutarate b administered as a bolus into the left jugular vein. Heads were disarticulated at the atlanto-occipital

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, including atlanto-occipital fusion, malformation of C1 with reduced transverse processes, and an atlantoaxial joint resembling the species-specific atlanto-occipital joint. 7 None of these features was present in this dog. I do not question that the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association