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, such as kidneys or bones. 1–3 The nasal form of disease in dogs is usually caused by infection with Aspergillus fumigatus . Nasal aspergillosis typically affects young to middle-aged dolichocephalic and mesocephalic dogs. Common clinical signs in dogs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

–3 Nasal aspergillosis is usually caused by infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and typically affects young to middle-aged dolichocephalic and mesocephalic dogs. Common clinical signs in dogs include chronic nasal discharge, signs of facial pain, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Nasal aspergillosis can result from implantation of the fungus in association with a nasal foreign body or can occur in dogs with preexisting nasal disease or defects of local immunity. 1 Nasal infection with Aspergillus spp in immunocompetent

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

environment and have been isolated from the coat of healthy cats and dogs. 6–8 Aspergillus spp are considered opportunistic pathogens that induce systemic disease in immunocompromised humans and other animals. 9–15 In cats with systemic aspergillosis, 70

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, usually caused by Aspergillus spp, are frequently seen in psittacine patients, with certain species, such as African grey parrots, being more commonly affected. 1 Aspergillosis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

aspergillosis in 30 dogs . J Vet Intern Med . 2008 ; 22 ( 4 ): 851 - 859 . doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0125.x 3. Day MJ , Eger CE , Shaw SE , Penhale WJ . Immunologic study of systemic aspergillosis in German Shepherd Dogs . Vet Immunol

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

an antimicrobial drug. Sinonasal aspergillosis is a common sinonasal disease, affecting 6% to 10 % of dogs with chronic nasal signs. 4,5 Typically, topical treatment with clotrimazole solution or cream or enilconazole solution with or without

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To analyze medical records and identify factors that veterinarians can use to prevent pulmonary aspergillosis in horses or that would enable them to diagnose it as early as possible.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

29 horses.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for horses with pulmonary aspergillosis diagnosed on the basis of characteristic postmortem findings. Information on history, clinical signs, disease progression, and postmortem findings was obtained.

Results

25 of 29 (86.2%) horses had primary (n = 20) or secondary (5) disease compatible with loss of integrity of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The remaining 4 horses had a non-GI tract disorder; only 1 of these 4 had clinical signs associated with the respiratory tract (ie, pleuropneumonia). Although 22 (75.9%) horses had various signs of respiratory tract disorders, an antemortem diagnosis of Aspergillus pneumonia was made in only 1 horse and was suspected in only 1 other. Fungal organisms were seen histologically in tissues other than the lung in 12 (41.4%) horses.

Clinical Implications

Horses with enteritis, colitis, typhlitis, or other diseases of the GI tract that result in mucosal compromise, and horses with clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, particularly if the horse's condition is unresponsive to treatment with antimicrobial agents, should be considered at high risk of having pulmonary aspergillosis. Immunosuppression from debilitating disease may also predispose horses to aspergillosis. Because invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can be difficult to diagnose, clinicians should be aware of clinical and epidemiologic settings in which this disease would develop. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:808–811)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Mycotoxins allow the organism to evade phagocytic killing. 6 These toxins are responsible for the protracted treatment course in human and veterinary patients, and available antifungal medications are potentially toxic or ineffective. Aspergillosis can

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of 1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.

Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously. Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole by use of a modified noninvasive infusion procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with 2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of further treatment until cure was established.

Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9, 6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments, respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized before the end of the treatment protocol. In group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis, and sneezing developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses, respectively, were effective for treatment of aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association