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at these dose ranges. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (VAST) subcommittee approved methods and breakpoints for testing the susceptibility of bacterial isolates from dogs to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

antimicrobial susceptibility test data. As the authors of that study 11 noted, however, most dogs examined at their institution with signs suggestive of a retrobulbar abscess did not have sampling performed, suggesting that their study population may have

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

organization to take into account these cutoffs to select a regional or an international breakpoint. ABBREVIATIONS AMR Antimicrobial resistance AST Antimicrobial susceptibility testing AUC Area under the curve CL/F Apparent clearance as a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, 4 Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) across the country routinely perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) on a wide array of samples, and some perform whole genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens. Several projects currently aggregate

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Abstract

Objective—To describe antimicrobial susceptibility testing practices of veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States and evaluate the feasibility of collating this information for the purpose of monitoring antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from animals.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Procedures—A questionnaire was mailed to veterinary diagnostic laboratories throughout the United States to identify those laboratories that conduct susceptibility testing. Nonrespondent laboratories were followed up through telephone contact and additional mailings. Data were gathered regarding methods of susceptibility testing, standardization of methods, data management, and types of isolates tested.

Results—Eighty-six of 113 (76%) laboratories responded to the survey, and 64 of the 86 (74%) routinely performed susceptibility testing on bacterial isolates from animals. Thirty-four of the 36 (94%) laboratories accredited by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians responded to the survey. Laboratories reported testing > 160,000 bacterial isolates/y. Fifty-one (88%) laboratories reported using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility; this accounted for 65% of the isolates tested. Most (87%) laboratories used the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) documents for test interpretation. Seventy-five percent of the laboratories performed susceptibility testing on bacterial isolates only when they were potential pathogens.

Conclusions—The veterinary diagnostic laboratories represent a comprehensive source of data that is not easily accessible in the United States. Variability in testing methods and data storage would present challenges for data aggregation, summary, and interpretation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:168–173)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens isolated from the milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis were associated with duration of clinical signs or bacteriologic cure rate following treatment with cephapirin and oxytetracycline.

Design—Observational study on a convenience sample.

Animals—58 dairy cows with 121 episodes of clinical mastitis.

Procedure—Cows that only had abnormal glandular secretions were treated with cephapirin alone. Cows with an inflamed gland and abnormal glandular secretions were treated with oxytetracycline and cephapirin. Cows with systemic signs of illness, an inflamed gland, and abnormal glandular secretions were treated with oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine and frequent stripping of the affected glands. The Kirby-Bauer method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and current guidelines were used to categorize causative bacteria as susceptible or resistant to the treatment regimen.

Results—Median durations of episodes of clinical mastitis caused by susceptible (n = 97) and resistant (24) bacteria were not significantly different. Bacteriologic cure rates at 14 and 28 days were similar for episodes caused by susceptible and resistant bacteria; however, for 56 episodes of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria and treated with cephapirin alone, bacteriologic cure rate at 28 days was significantly higher for susceptible than for resistant bacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that antimicrobial susceptibility testing was of no value in predicting duration of clinical signs or bacteriologic cure rate in dairy cows with mastitis, except for episodes caused by gram-positive organisms treated with intramammary administration of cephapirin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:103–108)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods remain the gold standard. In short, genotypic ART tells you which antimicrobials you cannot use, while AST tells you which are appropriate for use. The purpose of this article is to review genotypic ART through

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. All bacteria were maintained as frozen stabilates at −80 °C until shipped for antimicrobial susceptibility testing at the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, also an AAVLD-accredited laboratory. All susceptibility testing was performed

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

through the identification of pathogenic bacteria, through the performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), and as a source of expertise for veterinarians regarding resistance mechanisms and therapeutics. VDLs are also critical in the

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, including responsible use and reduced use through management and disease prevention, are termed antimicrobial stewardship and should be practiced in all one-health sectors. 1 Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is a critical stewardship tool to help

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