A ccording to the WHO, antibioticresistance (AR) is 1 of the top 10 global health threats. 1 , 2 In fact, AR is already a leading cause of death globally. 3 It has been estimated that if it continues at the current rate, by 2050 antimicrobial
To report the outcome of locally administered antibiotic-impregnated poloxamer 407 (P407) hydrogel in dogs diagnosed with orthopedic surgical site infections (SSIs) and to identify risk factors for treatment failure.
34 client-owned dogs diagnosed with an orthopedic surgical site infection treated with local antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel.
Medical records were reviewed of dogs receiving antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel for an active orthopedic SSI between March 2018 and December 2020. The rate of successful infection clearance was calculated. Risk factors for failed treatment were evaluated with statistical analyses.
34 dogs met the inclusion criteria. Vancomycin-impregnated P407 hydrogel (20 mg/mL) was implanted in all dogs. The rate of infection clearance was 77%. Each unit increase in the number of surgeries performed at a site before gel implantation decrease the chance of successful infection clearance by 25% (P = .005; unit OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.81). Presence of multidrug or methicillin resistance increased risk for treatment failure by 7.69 times (P = .042; OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.01 to 1.14). No adverse events related to gel administration were seen.
Treatment outcomes were negatively impacted by the presence of multidrug or methicillin resistance and by an increased number of surgeries before gel implantation. Local administration of antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel had a high success rate with no adverse effects in this population. Local antibiotic gel administration may improve treatment outcomes in dogs with complicated SSI.
antibioticresistance, eg, what concerns do you have regarding antibioticresistance in your profession?; and (2) the impact on professional practice, eg, how does this concern affect your practice?
The interview audio was digitally
Objective—To determine whether an inactivated culture
of a microcin-producing avian Escherichia coli
was capable of killing Salmonella isolates from reptiles
in an in vitro test system.
Sample Population—57 Salmonella isolate from reptiles.
Procedure—A wild-type avian E coli electrotransformed
with a plasmid coding for the production of
microcin 24 was tested in an in vitro microassay system
for its ability to kill 57 Salmonella spp isolated
from reptiles. The reptile population included snakes,
iguana, frilled lizards, turtles, other lizards, and
Results—44 of the Salmonella isolates were inhibited
strongly, compared with the in vitro assay controls; 12
had weak inhibition, and 1 was not inhibited by the
microcin-producing E coli. Thirteen of the 57 isolates
had resistance to at least 1 antibiotic, primarily streptomycin.
There were 9 O serogroups identified in the
57 isolates, with serogroup H being the most prevalent
(18 to 57).
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Antibiotics are
not recommended to eliminate Salmonella organisms
from reptiles because of the development of antibiotic
resistance. Further studies are necessary to determine
whether the use of microcin-producing bacteria will be
effective in controlling Salmonella infections in companion
reptiles. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1399–1401)
Objective—To assess the strain heterogeneity of
enrofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli associated with
urinary tract infections in dogs at a veterinary medical
teaching hospital (VMTH). In addition, strains from
other veterinary hospitals in California were compared
with the VMTH strains to assess the geographic
distribution of specific enrofloxacin-resistant E coli
Sample Population—56 isolates of E coli from urine
samples (43 isolates from dogs at the VMTH, 13 isolates
from dogs from other veterinary clinics in
Procedures—Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed
on 56 isolates of E coli from urine samples from
56 dogs. All 56 isolates were tested for susceptibility to
amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, tetracycline,
trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cephalexin, and
ampicillin. Enrofloxacin usage data from 1994 to 1998
were obtained from the VMTH pharmacy.
Results—Several strains of enrofloxacin-resistant
E coli were collected from urine samples from the
VMTH, and strains identical to those from the VMTH
were collected from other veterinary clinics in
California. For the isolates that did share similar DNA
banding patterns, variable antibiotic resistance profiles
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The
increased occurrence of enrofloxacin-resistant E
coli from urine samples from dogs at the VMTH
was not likely attributable to a single enrofloxacinresistant
clone but may be attributed to a collective
increase in enrofloxacin resistance among uropathogenic
E coli in dogs in general. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To investigate the effect of an Escherichia
coli that produced microcin 24 (Mcc24) on shedding
of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in swine
and evaluate evidence of in vivo activation of the
Mcc24-mediated, multiple-antibiotic resistance ( mar)
Animals—36 crossbred weaned pigs.
Procedure—24 pigs were allocated to 2 groups
(12 pigs/group). Pigs in 1 group received daily oral
administration of an Mcc24-producing E coli, whereas
the other group received a non–Mcc24-producing E
coli. All pigs were challenge exposed with Salmonella
Typhimuriumχ4232. A third group of 6 pigs received
Mcc24-producing E coli and was challenge exposed
with an Mcc24-sensitive, marA-deleted strain of
SalmonellaTyphimurium 4232. After challenge exposure,
fecal samples from all pigs were cultured to
detect shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium and
Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were screened for
resistance to ciprofloxacin. Fecal samples were collected
throughout the study, and tissue samples were
collected during necropsy.
Results—Differences in shedding of Salmonella
Typhimurium were not detected between groups
receiving Mcc24-producing or non–Mcc24-producing
E coli. No significant differences were found in quantitative
analysis between groups receiving Mcc24-producing and non–Mcc24-producing E coli. Evidence
of maractivation was not detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Microcin-producing
E coli did not exert an effect on shedding of
Salmonella Typhimurium or maractivation in pigs. It may
be difficult or impractical to create the conditions
required for Mcc24 to be an effective part of a food safety
intervention to reduce shedding of Salmonella
Typhimurium. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1616–1620)
Objective—To determine whether isolation and virulence
of Rhodococcus equi from soil and infected
foals are associated with clinical disease.
Design—Cross-sectional and case-control study.
Sample Population—R equi isolates from 50 foals
with pneumonia and soil samples from 33 farms with
and 33 farms without a history of R equi infection
(affected and control, respectively).
Procedure—R equi was selectively isolated from soil
samples. Soil and clinical isolates were evaluated for
virulence-associated protein antigen plasmids (VapAP)
and resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics penicillin
G and cephalothin. Microbiologic cultures and VapA-P
assays were performed at 2 independent laboratories.
Results—VapA-P was detected in 49 of 50 (98%) clinical
isolates; there was complete agreement between
laboratories. Rhodococcus equi was isolated from soil
on 28 of 33 (84.8%) affected farms and 24 of 33
(72.7%) control farms, but there was poor agreement
between laboratories. Virulence-associated protein
antigen plasmids were detected on 14 of 66 (21.2%)
farms by either laboratory, but results agreed for only
1 of the 14 VapA-P-positive farms. We did not detect
significant associations between disease status and
isolation of R equi from soil, detection of VapA-P in soil
isolates, or resistance of soil isolates to β-lactam
antibiotics. No association between β-lactam antibiotic
resistance and presence of VapA-P was detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of
soil microbiologic culture and VapA-P assay results, it is
not possible to determine whether foals on a given farm
are at increased risk of developing disease caused by R
equi. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:220–225)
optimize the use of antimicrobials. This term considers the “benefit of antibiotic use to the patient while minimizing the development of antibioticresistance and adverse effects on the patient from unnecessary therapy.” 4,5 In addition, the Report to the
—working to battle antibioticresistance and help prevent the next global health crisis.
Advancing animal health through viral surveillance, antimicrobial resistance, and clinical trials research.
In 2022, we were 1 of 9 projects selected to receive