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, administration routes, and legal requirements for food animals, as well as an understanding of underlying microbial resistance trends, potential for polymicrobial infection, and immune suppressive factors relevant to patient populations. An antibiogram

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

/pharmacodynamic data used to categorize a bacterial isolate as susceptible (S), susceptible dose dependent (SDD), intermediate (I), or resistant (R). 2 In addition to informing individual patient care, AST data can be aggregated into antibiograms showing the

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instances, antibiograms have been promoted as a tool to improve empirical antimicrobial selection. 3,11 The CLSI defines an antibiogram or “cumulative AST data summary” as “the report generated by analysis of results on isolates from a particular

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

that can contribute to evidence-based prescribing is the use of antibiograms. 3 Antibiograms compile culture and sensitivity (C&S) results for a particular population, which provides prescribers with a more locally relevant resistance profile. As

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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guidelines (eg, International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases guidelines 7–9 ), and custom antibiograms for their practice or local practice group to customize their initial antimicrobial choices. The integration of these pieces of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

analysis —Identification of bacterial species and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (antibiograms) was generated by use of an automated system. a Antimicrobial agents were selected for routine testing as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standards

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to diagnostic testing in small animal practice. 10 , 21 , 23 – 25 A downstream effect of high-cost cultures is that antibiograms (ie, summaries of bacterial susceptibilities) may be biased and result in inappropriate empiric antimicrobial choices

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, antibiograms, etc) trends in antibiotic resistance, although both professions agreed it was necessary and allowed for better understanding and prescription practices of antibiotics. One MD pointed out the availability of antibiograms and guidelines for local

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To assess automated ribotyping for characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and to identify their type prevalence and geographic distribution.

Sample Population—39 human and 56 ruminant P aeruginosa isolates.

Procedures—Isolates were identified by use of bacteriologic techniques and automated PvuII-based ribotyping. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was tested in vitro. Data were analyzed for index of discrimination; prevalence ratio; geographic distribution of ribotypes found only in humans, only in cows, or only in goats (single-host ribotypes); and geographic distribution of ribotypes found in humans and ruminants (multihost ribotypes).

Results—All isolates were typeable (45 ribotypes, 35 single-host ribotypes). Ribotyping index of discrimination was 0.976. More isolates (45.3%) than expected yielded multihost ribotypes (22% of all ribotypes). Although 8.6% of single-host ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates, 60% of multihost ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates. Ninety percent of multihost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas, whereas 3.0% of singlehost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas. All ruminant isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and polymyxin B. In contrast, antibiogram profiles differed for human isolates from different geographic areas. Susceptibility to antimicrobials differentiated 6 isolates not distinguished by ribotyping.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Automated ribotyping with PvuII discriminated more isolates than in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. In combination, both tests provided more information than either test alone. Given the greater prevalence and geographic distribution of multihost ribotypes, immunocompromised humans and lactating ruminants may have a greater risk for disease if exposed to multihost P aeruginosa ribotypes, compared with single-host ribotypes. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:864–870)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in horses and horse personnel.

Design—Prospective prevalence study.

Sample Population—972 horses and 107 personnel from equine farms in Ontario, Canada and New York state.

Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were collected from horses and humans on farms with (targeted surveillance) and without (nontargeted surveillance) a history of MRSA colonization or infection in horses during the preceding year. Selective culture for MRSA was performed. Isolates were typed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antibiograms were determined.

Results—MRSA was isolated from 46 of 972 (4.7%) horses (0/581 via nontargeted surveillance and 46/391 [12%] via targeted surveillance). Similarly, MRSA was isolated from 14 of 107 (13%) humans (2/41 [5%] from nontargeted surveillance and 12/66 [18%] from targeted surveillance). All isolates were subtypes of Canadian epidemic MRSA-5, an uncommon strain in humans. All isolates were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial class in addition to β-lactams. On all farms with colonized horses, at least 1 human was colonized with an indistinguishable subtype. For horses, residing on a farm that housed > 20 horses was the only factor significantly associated with MRSA colonization. For humans, regular contact with > 20 horses was the only identified risk factor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm a reservoir of colonized horses on a variety of farms in Ontario and New York and provide evidence that 1 MRSA strain is predominantly involved in MRSA colonization in horses and humans that work with horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:580–583)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association