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Animal bites continue to pose major public health challenges. Since publication of the previous report 1 on this topic for this series in 1988, much has been researched and reported regarding animal bites among populations of humans. The intent

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

animals. With numerous potential exposures, animal bites continue to be a major public health concern and a burden on the health-care system. 2 In humans, consequences of animal bites include physical and emotional trauma, pain, infection, possible

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To understand the epidemiology of animal bites and exposure, evaluate the animal exposure reporting system for surveillance of rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), and identify opportunities to reduce PEP.

Design—Period prevalence survey.

Study Population—Pennsylvania residents in 1995.

Procedure—Data from animal bite reports from Pennsylvania county health offices were summarized for 1995. Animal bite incidences for the state, counties, various age groups, and various population densities were calculated. Animal species, treatment, location of wounds, and PEP recommendations were evaluated for exposures.

Results—More than 16,000 animal-related potential rabies exposures were reported from 65 of 67 counties in Pennsylvania. The highest incidence was in children less than 5 years old (324/100,000). Of the 75% of victims requiring wound treatment, 50% received antimicrobials, 29% received a tetanus toxoid, and 19% had wounds sutured, were admitted to hospitals, or were referred for plastic surgery. Although 75% of exposures were to dogs, victims exposed to cats were 6 times as likely to receive PEP (relative risk, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 7.4). Thirty percent of 556 PEP were given for exposures to dogs, 44% for cats, 7% for raccoons, 4% for bats, 2.5% for squirrels, 2.1% for groundhogs, 2% for foxes, and 8% for exposures to other species. Fifty-nine percent of owned dogs were up-to-date on rabies vaccinations compared with 41% of owned cats.

Conclusion—Interventions, such as dog bite prevention education, vaccination of pets against rabies, appropriate use of PEP, and reduction of feral cat populations, should be instituted, enhanced, or better enforced in communities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:190–194)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Animal bites account for roughly 1% of all emergency department visits in the US, with 60% to 90% of those bites being from dogs and 5% to 20% being from cats. 1 Animal-related injuries, specifically animal bites, are associated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

over the course of their career. 1,2 In addition, animal bites are one of the most common injuries received by animal care workers. For example, > 60% of veterinarians in studies 3–7 from the Americas, Australia, and Europe reported a history of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

half of Americans will be bitten by an animal at some point during their lifetime. 4 Most animal bites do not result in significant injuries that warrant medical attention. Of the approximately 4.5 million people bitten by dogs each year, 885,000 (20

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

master problem list, as provided by the primary clinician, was collected. These data were separated by type of emergency into broad groups of animal bite, cardiac arrest, seizure, ophthalmic, gastric dilatation-volvulus, trauma, toxicosis, neoplasia, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Animal bites, including dog bites, to humans have been recognized as an important public health problem. 1,2 More than 300,000 patients are treated for dog bites in hospital emergency departments annually, with associated medical costs > $1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars among veterinarians and identify risk factors for seropositivity in veterinary care settings.

Design—Seroepidemiologic survey.

Study Population—Veterinarians attending the 2006 AVMA Annual Convention.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from 511 veterinarians, and serum was harvested for a microcapsule agglutination test (MAT) to detect antibodies against 6 serovars of Leptospira. Aggregate data analysis was performed to determine the ratio of the odds of a given exposure (eg, types of animals treated or biosafety practices) in seropositive individuals to the odds in seronegative individuals.

Results—Evidence of previous leptospiral infection was detected in 2.5% of veterinarians. Most veterinarians reported multiple potential exposures to Leptospira spp and other pathogens in the previous 12 months, including unintentional needlestick injuries (379/511 [74.2%]), animal bites (345/511 [67.5%]), and animal scratches (451/511 [88.3%]). Treatment of a dog with an influenza-like illness within the past year was associated with seropositivity for antibodies against Leptospira spp.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians are at risk for leptospirosis and should take measures to decrease potential exposure to infectious agents in general. Diagnostic tests for leptospirosis should be considered when veterinarians have febrile illnesses of unknown origin.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

statewide emergency department surveillance data to assess incidence of animal bite injuries among humans in North Carolina Animal bites continue to be a major public health concern and a burden on the human health-care system. Animal bite surveillance

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association