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supraspinatus tendon may increase the risk of rotator cuff injury in humans. 25 In horses, microvascular anatomy of the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, and SL of the forelimb have been described. In these studies, areas with

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The anatomy of each feature and structure of the laryngeal and adjacent regions, as perceived by palpation, is described for clinically normal standing horses. Visible skin contours produced by some of the superficial structures are also described. Concurrent dissection was performed on fresh cadavers to confirm initial findings. The procedure of systematic palpation in relation to clinical diagnosis and surgical procedure is discussed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To provide an accurate and detailed description of the laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen of horses positioned in dorsal recumbency and to compare those observations with laparoscopic anatomy of standing horses. The effects of laparoscopy and positional changes on arterial blood pressure and blood gas values also were investigated.

Design

Descriptive anatomic study.

Sample Population

Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, and 2 stallions) to record the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen in dorsal recumbency.

Procedure

Feed was withheld from all horses for 36 hours. Horses, under general anesthesia, were examined in horizontal and inclined positions (head-up and head-down). Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was used, arterial blood pressure was continuously monitored, and samples for arterial blood gas measurements were taken at intervals.

Results

The main structures of diagnostic relevance observed in the caudal region of the abdomen were the urinary bladder, mesorchium and ductus deferens (left and right), left and right vaginal rings, insertion of the pre-pubic tendon, random segments of jejunum and descending colon, pelvic flexure of the ascending colon, body of the cecum, and cecocolic fold. The main structures observed in the cranial region of the abdomen were ventral surface of the diaphragm, falciform ligament and round ligaments of the liver, ventral portion of the left lateral, left medial, quadrate, and right lateral lobes of the liver, spleen, right and left ventral colons, sternal flexure of the ascending colon, apex of the cecum, and stomach.

Conclusions

Alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory function in response to pneumoperitoneum and various positional changes indicated the need for continuous and throrough anesthetic monitoring and support. Comparison of anatomic observations made in dorsally recumbent, inclined horses with those reported for standing horses should enable practitioners to make patient positioning decisions that best suit access to specific visceral structures. Development of special instrumentation for manipulation of the viscera in horses, particularly the intestinal tract, would increase the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of laparoscopy during dorsal recumbency. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:923–931)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Analyses of the fibers in the prepubic tendon of the horse and ruminants have shown that it is composed of the crossed and uncrossed tendons of origin of the pectineus muscles, the pelvic tendons of the rectus and obliquus abdominis muscles, and the tendons of origin of the cranial parts of the gracilis muscles. Pelvic attachments of the linea alba and the yellow abdominal tunic are incorporated in it. It is not a transverse ligament, and it is not homologous to the human superior (cramai) pubic ligament.

The dog differs in 4 respects: (1) the pectineus tendons do not cross, but each originates from the pubic bone of the same side; (2) an iliopubic cartilage is intercalated in the prepubic tendon on each side at the junction of the pectineus tendon and the abdominal and pelvic tendons of the external oblique at the caudal angle of the superficial inguinal ring; (3) in some dogs, the caudal border of the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis joins the prepubic tendon; (4) the gracilis tendon does not extend to the prepubic tendon.

The clinical anatomy was described, illustrated, and compared between species. Conflicting descriptions in the literature were discussed and resolved by new approaches to the dissection. Studies of the inguinal region in the cat and pig were reviewed. A table of nomenclature is included.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

portion of the forelimb 16 have been described. Recently, intra-arterial contrast-enhanced CT of the distal portion of the limbs in horses has also been reported, 17 but to our knowledge, the CT anatomy of the normal equine MCP joint has not been

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

However, the lack of a univocal reference for the normal anatomy and clinical aspects of the so-called nonconventional (ie, exotic) species is a limiting factor for the development of high-level clinical practice. The gradual increase in use of imaging

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Thoracic limbs from 8 horses were dissected. The dorsoscapular ligament was determined to consist of a collagenous part that fused to the surface of the thoracolumbar fascia and of an elastic part that extended laterally from the collagenous part to attach to the medial surface of the scapula and interdigitate with fibers of the serratus ventralis thoracis muscle.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, 2 stallions) to determine the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the equine abdomen. After withholding feed for 36 hours, horses were examined from the left and right paralumbar fossae, and the visceral anatomic structures were recorded by videotape and photography. One mare developed emphysema located subcutaneously at the primary laparoscopic portal; otherwise, there were no complications. The anatomic structures of diagnostic importance that were observed in the left half of the abdomen were the hepatic duct; left lateral and quadrate lobes of the liver; stomach; spleen; left kidney with the associated nephrosplenic ligament; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; left side of the male and female reproductive tracts; urinary bladder; vaginal ring; and mesorchium. Important structures observed in the right side of the abdomen were portions of the common hepatic duct; left lateral, quadrate, and right lobes of the liver; caudate process of the liver; stomach; duodenum; right dorsal colon, epiploic foramen; omental bursa; right kidney; base of the cecum; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; urinary bladder; right half of the male and female reproductive tracts; and rectum.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Three laparoscopic procedures were performed on each of 6 adult Jersey cows in the first trimester of gestation to describe normal laparoscopic anatomy of the bovine abdomen. Also, a technique for laparoscopy of the cranioventral portion of the abdomen was described. Right paralumbar fossa, left paralumbar fossa, and cranioventral midline laparoscopy were performed 72 hours apart on each cow. Physical examination findings, cbc, serum biochemical analysis, and peritoneal fluid analysis before and 72 hours after the first surgery were used to assess the effects of the procedures on the cows. Exploratory celiotomy was performed 2 weeks after the last laparoscopy. The cows were then reexamined 6 weeks after the last procedure. The t-test for paired data was used for statistical analysis; the level of significance was P < 0.05. Laparoscopy was performed without complication in all cows. Adverse effects of laparoscopy, individually or serially, were not observed. Significant differences were not found between cbc, serum biochemical, and peritoneal fluid variables taken before and 72 hours after surgery.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

species in this study. All necropsy findings were carefully documented, and all coelomic organs (including major blood vessels) were identified and named in accordance with the most recent information on snake anatomy. 6–18 Photographs were obtained as

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research