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formed by the tibial anatomical axes (AA) and the tibial mechanical axes (MA) and quantifies the magnitude of the caudal displacement of the functional weight-bearing axis of the tibia in relation to its anatomical axis. 3 , 5 , 6 , 10 In one study, 6

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

% of humeral length to the midpoint of the line joining the humeral epicondyles (anatomic axis). By use of Boolean operations, the portion of the scapula available on the 3-D model was separated from the humerus. Best-fit medullary canal ellipses were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the anatomic axis of the radius to the elbow and carpal joints. 1 Radiography of the elbow joint revealed rotational radial head subluxation; the distal portion of the humerus was evident in the cranial-caudal radiographic view, and the proximal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

axis and in craniolateral translation of the proximal bone fragment in the dog of the present report. The site at which the proximal and distal anatomic axis lines intersect is referred to as the CORA. 18 In orthopedically normal dogs, the canine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

VR and MPR images. Measurement parameters Femoral joint orientation angles —For FIA or aLDFA measurement, VR frontal plane images of the femur were used. The FIA was defined as the angle formed by the femoral anatomical axis, that is, the line

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

—The origin of angulation of the tibial plateau was defined as the intersection of a line perpendicular to the cranial-to-caudal midpoint of the medial tibial condyle and the anatomic axis (ie, TPS measurements). 28 The anatomic axis was defined by a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the origin to the center of the medial femoral condyle. The y-axis was parallel to the anatomical axis of the femoral diaphysis. The x-axis was pointed caudally and perpendicular to both y- and z-axis. C—Origin of the tibia was the midpoint of the line

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intersection between a proximal tibial axis (drawn to reflect the desired postoperative angle) and the distal tibial anatomic axis. The aim was to create a postoperative TPA of 11° in this instance. 1 , 2 The measured magnitude of the CORA (ie, angle between

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

lateralized guide. A 3-mm-diameter hole was drilled parallel to the anatomic axis of the femur in the intertrochanteric fossa, and the hole was enlarged with a bone rongeur. Initially, the femoral shaft was power reamed, increasing the femoral shaft diameter

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

tibial anatomic axis in the force control (in proximal-distal translation). Cranial-caudal and medial-lateral translation were controlled to maintain outputs in these directions at 0 N, and valgus-varus and internal-external rotation were controlled to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research