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T he characteristic call and large size of the American bullfrog ( Lithobates catesbeianus ) make these animals popular in zoological institutions as well as a common pet in many American households. Amphibian populations, including those of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Cooling and freezing as methods for anesthetizing or euthanizing amphibians and reptiles have been discussed since at least the late 1980s. 1 Historically, most authors have recommended against the use of these practices 1–7 because of the lack

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and unacceptable drug-based methods for euthanasia of mammals. 1 In contrast, developing similar recommendations for ectothermic vertebrates (ie, fish, amphibians, and nonavian reptiles) poses great challenges. Most importantly, the physiologic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

North Carolina–native reptiles and amphibians for medical and surgical treatment for the purpose of teaching veterinary students. The organization is operated by veterinary students with the help of faculty advisors and the clinical services of the North

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Limited information is available regarding anti-microbial administration and related pharmacokinetic properties in amphibians. Consequently, current antimicrobial dosing strategies are based primarily on cross

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Abstract

Objective—To determine anesthetic techniques and the drugs used to provide anesthesia and analgesia to reptiles.

Design—Mail-out questionnaire.

Sample Population—367 members of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.

Procedure—1,091 members listed in the 2002 directory of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding anesthesia and analgesia.

Results—367 of 1,091 (33.6%) individuals completed the questionnaire; 88.8% used inhalants (particularly isoflurane) for anesthesia, and ketamine, propofol, and butorphanol were the most commonly used injectable agents. Intubation, fluids, and having a dedicated anesthetist were most commonly used for patient support, and pulse oximetry and Doppler ultrasonography were most commonly used for monitoring. Respiratory depression, difficulty monitoring anesthetic depth, prolonged recovery, and hypothermia were the most frequent complications. Nearly all respondents believed that reptiles feel pain, but analgesics were used infrequently for many reasons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Providing anesthesia in reptiles is difficult, especially regarding anesthetic depth and vital parameters, and methods of support are used less frequently than in domestic species. Provision of analgesia is uncommon. Research regarding pain and its assessment, response to analgesics, and drug pharmacokinetics is needed. Dissemination of this information to practitioners needs to be improved for enhancement of the standard of care for reptiles. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:547–552)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association