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aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome (ACHES) or superficial necrolytic dermatitis (SND) also often require IV administration of amino acid solutions with osmolarities exceeding these cutoffs. 4 Central administration of parenteral

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The past 4 decades have been a time of dramatic advances in knowledge of feline nutrition, especially the relationships between protein metabolism and numerous disease states. Blood amino acid concentrations have been used for years to aid in the

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Amino acids play a key role in many metabolic pathways. Since the 1950s, 1 considerable research has been undertaken to investigate the mechanisms by which amino acids are absorbed, 2 metabolized, 3,4 and degraded as well as their roles in

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

syringe filter. The AA composition was determined in the filtrate by use of a norleucine internal standard with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography AA analyzer c at the Amino Acid Laboratory at the University of California-Davis, with

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the effect of maintenance hemodialysis on plasma amino acid concentrations and to quantitate free amino acid losses into the dialysate during hemodialysis in healthy dogs.

Animals—8 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Five dogs received hemodialysis treatments 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Plasma amino acid concentrations were evaluated once per week for 4 weeks in each of the 5 dogs prior to hemodialysis (time 0), 90 minutes during hemodialysis, and immediately after hemodialysis (180 minutes). Total free amino acid concentrations and plasma amino acid concentrations (time 0, 90 minutes, and 180 minutes) in the dialysate were evaluated in 3 dogs that received 1 hemodialysis treatment.

Results—Significant time versus week interactions with any plasma amino acid were not detected; however, significant decreases in all plasma amino acid concentrations measured were detected at the midpoint of dialysis (46 ± 2%) and at the end of each dialysis session (38 ± 2%). Mean (± SEM) total free amino acid loss into the dialysate was 2.7 ± 0.2 g or 0.12 g/kg of body weight.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemodialysis is associated with significant alterations in plasma amino acid concentrations and loss of free amino acids into the dialysate. Loss of amino acids into the dialysate, coupled with protein calorie malnutrition in uremic patients, may contribute to depletion of amino acid stores.(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:869–873)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The concentrations of 23 ammo acids in the plasma of 13 healthy foals were determined before suckling, when foals were 1 to 2 days old, 5 to 7 days old, 12 to 14 days old, and 26 to 28 days old. The ratio of the branched chain amino acids to the aromatic amino acids was also calculated at the 5 time points. Analysis of the concentrations at the 5 ages revealed a significant temporal relationship for each amino acid ranging from a polynomial order of 1 to 4 inclusively. There were significant differences between several concentrations of amino acids in plasma at specific sample times; however, no consistent patterns were revealed. The concentrations of amino acids in healthy foals were markedly different from previously determined values in adult horses. The significant differences in the concentrations of amino acids in plasma of healthy foals at the 5 ages may represent developmental aspects of amino acid metabolism or nutrition.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay for measuring serum cobalamin concentration in cats, to establish and validate gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques for use in quantification of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, cysteine, cystathionine, and methionine in sera from cats, and to investigate serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid, methionine, homocysteine, cystathionine, and cysteine as indicators of biochemical abnormalities accompanying severe cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency in cats.

Sample Population—Serum samples of 40 cats with severe cobalamin deficiency (serum cobalamin concentration < 100 ng/L) and 24 control cats with serum cobalamin concentration within the reference range.

Procedure—Serum concentrations of cobalamin were measured, using a commercial automated chemiluminescent immunoassay. Serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid, methionine, homocysteine, cystathionine, and cysteine were measured, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, selected ion monitoring, stable-isotope dilution assays.

Results—Cats with cobalamin deficiency had significant increases in mean serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid (9,607 nmol/L), compared with healthy cats (448 nmol/L). Affected cats also had substantial disturbances in amino acid metabolism, compared with healthy cats, with significantly increased serum concentrations of methionine (133.8 vs 101.1 µmol/L) and significantly decreased serum concentrations of cystathionine (449.6 vs 573.2 nmol/L) and cysteine (142.3 vs 163.9 µmol/L). There was not a significant difference in serum concentrations of homocysteine between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with gastrointestinal tract disease may have abnormalities in amino acid metabolism consistent with cobalamin deficiency. Parenteral administration of cobalamin may be necessary to correct these biochemical abnormalities. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1852–1858)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 neonatal foals with septicemia were compared with the concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 age-matched neonatal foals without septicemia. Analysis of the results revealed significantly lower concentrations of arginine, citrulline, isoleucine, proline, threonine, and valine in the plasma of foals with septicemia. The ratio of the plasma concentrations of the branched chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) to the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), was also significantly lower in the foals with septicemia. In addition, the concentrations of alanine, glycine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in the plasma of foals with septicemia. Therefore, neonatal foals with septicemia had significant differences in the concentrations of several amino acids in their plasma, compared with concentrations from healthy foals. These differences were compatible with protein calorie inadequacy and may be related to an alteration in the intake, production, use, or clearance of amino acids from the plasma pool in sepsis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To characterize potential changes in preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations in cats with naturally acquired chronic renal failure (CRF), compared with healthy cats, and to assess potential effects of the severity of renal failure on plasma amino acid concentrations in these cats.

Animals

62 adult cats.

Procedure

Preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations were evaluated in 38 cats with mild, moderate, or severe CRF and in 24 apparently healthy cats. Effects of severity of renal failure, amount of dietary protein, degree of weight loss, appetite, and body condition on plasma amino acid profiles were evaluated.

Results

Cats with various stages of CRF had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma concentrations of o-hydroxyproline, glutamate, proline, glycine, alanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and arginine, and significantly increased plasma concentrations of asparagine, citrulline, ornithine, 1-methylhistidine, and 3-methylhistidine. Significant (P < 0.05) alterations in amino acid concentrations also were identified when cats with CRF were grouped by appetite or severity of renal disease. Amount of dietary protein, body condition, or degree of weight loss had no significant effect on plasma amino acid concentrations.

Conclusions

Compared with those in healthy cats, preprandial plasma amino acid profiles in cats with mild, moderate, or severe CRF are abnormal.

Clinical Relevance

Despite frequency of altered plasma amino acid concentrations in cats with CRF, the magnitude of these changes is mild and of little clinical relevance. Short-term use of a commercial protein-restricted diet has no deleterious effects on plasma amino acid concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:109–113)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of equine retinal and pineal gland phosducin (PHD) and to clone these sequences.

Sample Population—Samples of equine retinal RNA.

Procedure—A primer set was designed for use in identifying a fragment of the equine PHD nucleotide sequence, derived from retinal RNA samples, and subsequently for use to deduce specific primers for additional examination. The full-length cDNA was determined by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). For full-length cDNA, newly designed primers were used. Nucleotide sequences were analyzed by use of computer software. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared with sequences of PHD reported for other species. In addition, the sequence of equine pineal PHD was cloned.

Results—The cDNA nucleotide sequence for equine PHD was 1,209 base pairs (bp) in length with an openreading frame encoding a protein of 245 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 28.214 kd. Similarity with amino acid sequences of PHD from other species was 89 to 93%. Sequences of equine PHD from retina and pineal gland were identical. Equine PHD contained a peptide sequence with 100% homology to an uveitopathogenic peptide reported for rat PHD.

Conclusions—Equine PHD is a highly conserved protein that has homology of immunologic interest with rat PHD. These results establish a basis for studying the role of PHD in ocular inflammation of horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:61–66)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research