deficiency amelia of the forelimbs or an absence of all parts of the front legs derived from the limb bud. 1
Treatment and Outcome
Upon presentation at the Widener Hospital, the mare was anxious and alert. The perineum and vulva were slightly swollen
To characterize the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of aural hematomas in horses.
7 horses with 1 or 2 aural hematomas (8 ears in total) treated at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2008 through 2019.
Data retrieved from medical records included signalment, pertinent historical information, clinical signs, diagnostic procedures (including dermatologic assessment), and treatments. Case outcome was determined from documentation in the medical record or via telephone communication with owners or referring veterinarians.
3 horses were presented after recurrence of aural hematoma following treatment by the referring veterinarian. Four horses had a history of allergic skin disease prior to aural hematoma development. Most (6/7) horses were unilaterally affected. Diagnostic assessments included otoscopic evaluation (3 horses), ultrasonography (3 horses), cytologic examination of ear canal swab samples (3 horses), and histologic examination of a pinnal biopsy specimen (1 horse). Of the 8 pinnae, 2 were treated by nonsurgical needle drainage (1 with concurrent corticosteroid injection) and the remaining 6 underwent surgical incision and placement of compressive sutures. Follow-up information was available for 6 horses, and all affected pinnae were fibrotic with 4 horses having permanent drooping of the pinna. One horse developed a hematoma in the contralateral pinna 1 year after hospital discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Equine aural hematoma is a rare condition. The main principle of treatment is drainage, and treatment options commonly used in small animal practice can be successfully applied in horses. Permanent changes in the cosmetic appearance of the pinna are likely to develop owing to secondary fibrosis.
Objective—To evaluate the role of adrenal and thyroid hormones in the prediction of death in a population of critically ill puppies with parvoviral diarrhea by measuring serial daily serum concentrations of cortisol and thyroxine.
Design—Prospective case-control study
Animals—57 critically ill puppies with parvoviral diarrhea admitted to the hospital and 17 clinically normal control puppies.
Procedures—Basal serum cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured for each dog with parvoviral diarrhea at admission (prior to treatment) and daily until death, euthanasia, or discharge.
Results—Median time between admission and death was 48 hours (ie, on day 3). Median serum cortisol concentration on day 1 (admission) in all dogs with parvoviral diarrhea (248 nmol/L) was significantly higher than in control dogs (77 nmol/L). No significant difference was found in the day 1 median serum cortisol concentration of 11 dogs that died (302 nmol/L) and 46 dogs that survived (238 nmol/L). A significantly higher median serum cortisol concentration was, however, found in nonsurvivor group dogs, compared with survivor group dogs, on days 2 and 3. Median serum thyroxine concentration on day 1 in dogs with parvoviral diarrhea was significantly lower than in control dogs (8.12 nmol/L vs 35 nmol/L, respectively). Median serum thyroxine concentration of nonsurvivor group dogs (4.4 nmol/L) was significantly lower than that of survivor group dogs (9.2 nmol/L) at admission and became even lower on days 2 and 3.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High serum cortisol and low serum thyroxine concentrations at 24 and 48 hours after admission were associated with death in dogs with parvoviral diarrhea.
To understand veterinarian and cat owner perspectives on antimicrobial use in cats, reasons for prescribing cefovecin, and barriers to improving antimicrobial stewardship, including veterinarian and cat owner perspectives of giving oral medication to cats.
21 New York veterinarians and 600 cat owners across the US.
Cat owners were surveyed about their preferences for and experiences in giving oral medications to cats and their experiences with antimicrobials specifically. Veterinarians were interviewed about antimicrobial use decisions in cats, benefits and drawbacks of cefovecin, and their perspectives on antimicrobial resistance.
Many veterinarians reported feeling pressure to prescribe antimicrobials, while 41% of cat owners reported requesting antimicrobials. Although veterinarians are aware of the downsides of prescribing cefovecin, many prescribed cefovecin in situations where an antimicrobial was not needed or cefovecin may not have been the best choice. Veterinarians thought that 20% of cat owners could not give oral medications, but < 10% of cat owners had a cat that was impossible to medicate.
The disconnect between veterinarians’ assessment of and cat owners’ reported abilities in administering oral medication may contribute to cefovecin use. Demonstrating for cat owners how to give oral medication may help improve compliance and reduce the use of parenteral long-acting formulations. Structural and educational interventions are needed to address other contributors to inappropriate antimicrobial use. This research provides the specific considerations about barriers and motivations for cat owners and veterinarians that are required to guide strategic, tailored interventions for both audiences to advance stewardship.
Antimicrobial stewardship encompasses all the individual and collective actions that medical professionals take to preserve the efficacy of antimicrobials. It is a one-health problem, affecting animals and humans. The current state of antimicrobial use in cats, particularly (1) the overuse and improper use of cefovecin, which belongs to the third-generation cephalosporin class that is critically important to human health, and (2) use of antimicrobials when they are not needed, poses unsustainable risks of antimicrobial resistance. This paper describes the principles of antimicrobial stewardship and stewardship challenges faced by feline veterinarians, including (1) poor adherence to or awareness of antimicrobial use guidelines, (2) lack of access to affordable diagnostic tests and antibiograms, (3) lack of access to materials and tools for clients that may facilitate more sustainable antimicrobial use and help cat owners understand resistance risks, (4) underestimating the ability of cat owners to administer oral antimicrobials, and (5) limited time and resources to support stewardship efforts. Based on research described in this paper; an original research article by Cazer et al, JAVMA, December 2023; and a Currents in One Health article by Cobo-Angel et al, AJVR, December 2023, several solutions are proposed to advance antimicrobial stewardship in feline medicine. Many of these proposals were expressly requested by veterinarians interviewed in Cazer et al, JAVMA, December 2023. Education and training of veterinarians and cat owners is an essential step toward sustainable antimicrobial use, but it must be complemented with innovations in diagnostic testing, antimicrobial drug development, structural changes, and technological supports.
OBJECTIVE To report the outcomes of horses with suspected nephrosplenic entrapment (NSE) of the large colon treated by IV phenylephrine administration and exercise with and without trocarization (ie, medical management).
DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.
ANIMALS 134 horses.
PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were searched to identify horses that underwent medical management for suspected NSE at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1995 and 2014. Demographic information, physical and ultrasonographic examination findings, treatment information (including the number of times the treatment was performed and patient response), surgical findings if applicable, complications, and patient outcome were recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported.
RESULTS 72 horses had suspected NSE that resolved with medical treatment; 59 of 62 horses underwent laparotomy when medical management failed, and 3 were euthanized without surgery. Twenty-five of the 59 horses had confirmed NSE that was surgically corrected, and 34 had lesions other than or in addition to NSE. All horses that had surgically corrected NSE and 18 of 34 horses that had other lesions survived to hospital discharge. The odds of resolution of NSE with medical management were greater for horses that underwent ≤ 2 (vs > 2) treatments. The treatment success rate for horses that underwent trocarization was not greater than that for horses that did not have the procedure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Suspected NSE resolved with the described medical management for most horses. However, results indicated the potential for misdiagnosis was high. Timely surgical intervention is recommended for horses that fail to respond to medical treatment.
Objective—To determine the effects of pretreatment
with α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acid, on equine synovial explants challenged
with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Animals—8 mature mixed-breed horses (4 mares
and 4 geldings).
Procedure—Synovial explants were assigned to
receive 1 of 7 concentrations of α-linolenic acid, ranging
from 0 to 300 µg/mL. At each concentration, half
of the explants were controls and half were challenged
with 0.003 µg of LPS as a model of synovial
inflammation. Cell inflammatory response was evaluated
by measurement of prostaglandin E2 production
via an ELISA. Synovial cell viability, function, histomorphologic
characteristics, and cell membrane composition
were evaluated by use of trypan blue dye
exclusion, hexuronic acid assay for hyaluronic acid,
objective microscopic scoring, and high-performance
liquid chromatography, respectively.
Results—Challenge with LPS significantly increased
production of prostaglandin E2 and decreased production
of hyaluronic acid. Treatment with α-linolenic
acid at the highest dose inhibited prostaglandin E2
production. Cell viability and histomorphologic characteristics
were not altered by treatment with
α-linolenic acid or LPS challenge. Treatment with
α-linolenic acid increased the percentage of this fatty
acid in the explant cell membranes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that investigation of α-linolenic acid as an anti-inflammatory
medication for equine synovitis is warranted.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1503–1508)
Objective—To characterize cytokine messenger RNA
(mRNA) expression in intranasally vaccinated calves
after bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) challenge.
Animals—Twelve 8- to 12-week-old calves.
Procedures—Calves received modified-live BRSV vaccine
(vaccinated) or spent tissue culture medium
(mock-vaccinated) intranasally, followed by challenge
30 days later with BRSV, or mock challenge with spent
tissue culture medium (mock-challenge controls).
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA was
measured in lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid
cells, pharyngeal tonsils, and tracheobronchial lymph
nodes, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA was
measured in lungs and BAL fluid cells by reverse transcriptase-competitive
polymerase chain reaction assay.
Results—Resistance to clinical signs of disease was
conferred in vaccinated calves. Expression of TNF-α
mRNA in lungs and BAL fluid cells was higher in
mock-vaccinated calves than control or vaccinated
calves. In the lung, IL-4 mRNA expression was higher
in vaccinated calves than control or mock-vaccinated
calves. In pharyngeal tonsils, expression of mRNA for
IL-4 and IFN-γ was higher in mock-vaccinated calves
than control calves. In tracheobronchial lymph nodes,
IFN-γ mRNA expression was higher in mock-vaccinated
calves than vaccinated calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although vaccinated
calves had decreased clinical signs of disease after
BRSV challenge, compared with mock-vaccinated calves,
this difference was not related to a T helper type 1 bias,
as determined by increased expression of interferon-γ
mRNA relative to interleukin-4 mRNA in lungs, BAL fluid
cells, or tracheobronchial lymph nodes of vaccinated
calves. Pulmonary inflammation was decreased in vaccinated
calves as determined by decreased expression of
TNF-α mRNA. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:725–733)
Objective—To evaluate the platelet activation response before and after treatment with clopidogrel in horses.
Animals—12 healthy adult mares.
Procedures—In a masked study, horses (6/group) were randomly allocated to alternately receive placebo or clopidogrel via nasogastric tube at a loading dose of 4 mg/kg followed by 2 mg/kg every 24 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 72 hours after initiation of treatment for ADP- and collagen-induced light transmission aggregometry; determination of closure time in collagen-ADP cartridges; modified thrombelastography for comparison of maximal amplitudes generated by kaolin, reptilase, and reptilase plus ADP activation; and flow cytometric tests to detect platelet fibrinogen binding, P-selectin expression, and phosphatidylserine externalization before and after ex vivo stimulation with thrombin, convulxin, thrombin with convulxin, and calcium ionophore.
Results—Clopidogrel administration induced a significant decrease in mean aggregation response to 5μM and 10μM ADP stimulation; however, 2 horses had resistance to clopidogrel's inhibitory action. Significant differences after clopidogrel treatment were not found in any other tests of platelet function.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assays using commercially available reagents were configured to measure different variables of the platelet activation response; however, clopidogrel's platelet inhibitory action was only detected by ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry. Results also suggested that horses, like humans, have interindividual variability in response to clopidogrel that may influence the drug's clinical efficacy as an antiplatelet agent.
Objective—To evaluate completeness of excision and clinical outcome in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) excised with a lateral margin of 2 cm and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane.
Animals—16 client-owned dogs with 1 or more cutaneous MCTs.
Procedure—Excision of MCTs was performed with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane. Histologic tumor grading was performed; surgical margins were categorized as complete or incomplete. Follow-up information was obtained via repeat examination of the dogs by veterinarians or client-completed questionnaires.
Results—4 grade I and 19 grade II cutaneous MCTs were evaluated. Overall, 21 (91%) MCTs were completely excised; 2 grade II tumors had foci of mast cells at the 2-cm margin. Two dogs received adjunctive treatments following surgery. Follow-up information was available for all dogs (median follow-up period, 379 days; range, 51 to 538 days); no local recurrence was detected during this time. De novo MCTs were detected in 3 of 16 dogs at 37, 54, and 154 days after surgery. Via Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time and disease-free interval were both > 538 days (medians not yet reached). No prognostic variables were identified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Excision with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane may result in satisfactory excision of grades I and II MCTs in dogs, with recurrence rates similar to those reported previously. Use of these margins may minimize complications associated with larger local tumor resection.