Objective—To evaluate a modified Ziehl-Neelsen
acid-fast staining technique (mZN), a direct immunofluorescence
detection procedure (DIF), and 3 commercial
enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for detection of
Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal specimens from kittens.
Sample Population—416 fecal specimens collected
from 104 randomly selected domestic shorthair kittens
(8 to 16 weeks of age) that were naturally
exposed to Cryptosporidium spp.
Procedure—Fresh fecal specimens were collected
once daily for 4 consecutive days and processed
immediately. Sensitivities of mZN, DIF, and 3 commercial
EIAs (EIA-1, EIA-2, and EIA-3) were estimated
Results—EIA-2 had the highest sensitivity on day 1
(89%), followed by EIA-1 (80%), and mZN (72%). EIA-
3 had the lowest sensitivity on day 1 (15%). EIA-2, EIA-
1, and mZN had similar sensitivities after 2 consecutive
fecal examinations (approx 90%). Determination of
specificities was compromised by the small number of
cats that had negative results for all tests (n = 3).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that EIA-2 and EIA-1 had the highest sensitivities
when only a single fecal specimen was examined;
however, mZN and EIA-1 had similar sensitivities
when 2 consecutive fecal specimens were examined.
The higher costs of EIA-2 and EIA-1 may be offset by
the tests’ high sensitivity, simplicity of use, and ease
of interpretation and by savings in technician time.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1549–1553)
stained with H&E and Kinyoun acidfast. Fish exhibited disseminated amorphous aggregates of acid-fast intracytoplasmic material throughout the body ( Figure 1 ) . High magnification revealed that these were comprised of acid-fast bacilli ( Figure 2
acid-fast bacteria, and 3 fecal specimens yielded negative results of bacteriologic culture for mycobacterial organisms. Five months later, an examination of the bird was performed prior to transfer to another zoologic institution. The kingfisher
media used for microbial culture. Special stains were used to confirm the colonies were formed by gram-positive acid-fast rod-shaped organisms. The mycobacterium pure isolate was sent to a specialty reference laboratory b for further identification and
Objective—To determine prevalence of enteric
zoonotic organisms in cats in north-central Colorado.
Sample Population—Serum and fecal samples from
87 cats with diarrhea, 106 cats without diarrhea, and
12 cats for which fecal consistency was unknown.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from clientowned
cats and cats at a humane society shelter.
Serum was assayed for feline leukemia virus antigen
and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus,
IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and IgG
antibodies against T gondii and Cryptosporidium
parvum. Microscopic examination of unstained feces
was performed after centrifugation in a zinc sulfate
solution, thin fecal smears were stained with acid fast
stain and examined for C parvum, and bacteriologic
culture of feces was used to detect aerobic and
Results—Enteric zoonotic organisms were detected
in feces from 27 of 206 (13.1%) cats and included
C parvum (5.4%), Giardia spp (2.4%), Toxocara cati
(3.9%), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium
(1.0%), and Campylobacter jejuni (1.0%); each organism
was detected in samples from cats with and
without diarrhea. Although differences between
groups were not significant, a higher proportion of
shelter cats (18.2%) had enteric zoonotic organisms
than client-owned cats (10.1%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enteric
zoonotic organisms were detected in feces of 13.1%
of cats, suggesting that cats, particularly those in
homes of immunocompromised humans, should be
evaluated for enteric zoonotic organisms. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2000;216:687–692)
after a cat fight. Microscopic examination of multiple punch biopsy specimens of affected tissue obtained 3 months prior to referral revealed severe pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with intralesional gram-positive bacilli. Acid-fast staining
revealed myriad acid-fast, elongated bacilli in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages of granulomas of the liver, kidneys, leptomeninges, and the hepatic lymph node.
Photomicrographs of sections of the liver with a nodule (A) and the left
following staining with Fite acid-fast stain ( Figure 4 ). Multifocal areas of necrosis with numerous acicular cholesterol clefts were present. The alveolar spaces in the less affected areas of lungs contained eosinophilic fluid. The lamina propria and
filamentous bacteria that were gram positive and acid-fast positive ( Figure 3 ).
Photomicrographs of a section of skin from the cat in Figure 1 . A—Notice the pyogranulomatous inflammation with a cluster of tangled bacteria within the
lymphocytes and fewer plasma cells were observed ( Figure 3 ). Large numbers of acid-fast bacilli were present within the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and extracellularly. Granulomas were limited to the lungs. Additional microscopic findings included