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individual agent. Though NSAIDs are widely used in veterinary medicine for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, 3 their use in many abdominal surgeries is limited due to concerns in patients with hypotension or those undergoing gastrointestinal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

this study was to retrospectively investigate the frequency of AKI at presentation and postoperatively in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery for septic peritonitis. Secondary objectives were to assess survival in dogs with AKI versus dogs without AKI

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate cardiopulmonary effects of anesthetic induction with diazepam and ketamine or xylazine and ketamine, with subsequent maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane, in foals undergoing abdominal surgery.

Animals—17 pony foals.

Procedures—Foals underwent laparotomy at 7 to 15 days of age and laparoscopy 7 to 10 days later. Foals were randomly assigned to receive diazepam, ketamine, and isoflurane (D/K/Iso; n = 8) or xylazine, ketamine, and isoflurane (X/K/Iso; 9) for both procedures.

Results—During anesthesia for laparotomy, cardiac index, and mean arterial blood pressure ranged from 110 to 180 mL/kg/min and 57 to 81 mm Hg, respectively, in the D/K/Iso group and 98 to 171 mL/kg/min and 50 to 66 mm Hg, respectively, in the X/K/Iso group. Cardiac index, heart rate, and arterial blood pressures were significantly higher in the D/K/Iso group, compared with the X/K/Iso group. During anesthesia for laparoscopy, cardiac index and mean arterial blood pressure ranged from 85 to 165 mL/kg/min and 67 to 83 mm Hg, respectively, in the D/K/Iso group, and 98 to 171 mL/kg/min and 48 to 67 mm Hg, respectively, in the X/K/Iso group. Heart rates and arterial blood pressures were significantly higher in the D/K/Iso group, compared with the X/K/Iso group. There were no significant differences between groups during either experimental period for percentage end-tidal isoflurane, arterial blood gas partial pressures, or pH values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia of foals for abdominal surgery with D/K/Iso was associated with less hemodynamic depression than with X/K/Iso.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To obtain information from specialists in equine surgery as to prevalence of, predisposing factors for, and methods to prevent postoperative adhesion formation in horses undergoing abdominal surgery.

Design

Survey.

Procedure

Surveys were mailed to 196 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons involved in equine practice.

Results

60 (31%) surveys were returned. Most respondents (55/60) routinely informed clients of the risk of postoperative adhesion formation in horses with small intestinal lesions. When asked after which procedures they routinely used measures to prevent adhesions, 56 of 60 (93%) indicated that they did after small intestinal resection and anastomosis and 56 of 60 (93%) indicated that they did after any abdominal surgery in foals. The 4 methods most frequently listed when respondents were asked which methods were effective at preventing adhesion formation were meticulous surgical technique, administration of antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intraoperative peritoneal lavage, and methods that prevent abdominal contamination. Most respondents (50/60) thought that at least some horses with colic secondary to adhesion formation could be managed medically. Fifty-four (90%) respondents indicated that they were successful less than half of the time when treating horses with adhesions severe enough to require additional surgery.

Conclusion

In general, respondents thought that less than 15% of horses undergoing abdominal surgery would develop adhesions, but that horses with small intestinal disease and foals were most prone to develop adhesions. Meticulous surgical technique was thought to be the most important factor in preventing adhesions, and many prevention regimens reported to be effective in the literature were not commonly used in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1573–1576)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the safety and efficacy of preoperative administration of meloxicam with that of ketoprofen and butorphanol in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery.

Animals—36 dogs undergoing laparotomy, splenectomy, or cystotomy.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. In the first part of the study, dogs were given a single dose of meloxicam, ketoprofen, or a placebo, and buccal mucosal bleeding times were measured. In the second part of the study, dogs were given meloxicam, ketoprofen, or butorphanol prior to surgery. Dogs in the butorphanol group received a second dose immediately after surgery. Pain scores (1 to 10) were assigned hourly for 20 hours after surgery and used to determine an overall efficacy score for each dog. Dogs with a pain score ≥ 3 were given oxymorphone for pain. Dogs were euthanatized 8 days after surgery, and gross and histologic examinations of the liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract were conducted.

Results—Overall efficacy was rated as good or excellent in 9 of the 12 dogs that received meloxicam, compared with 9 of the 12 dogs that received ketoprofen and only 1 of the 12 dogs that received butorphanol. No clinically important hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic abnormalities were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preoperative administration of meloxicam is a safe and effective method of controlling postoperative pain for 20 hours in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery; the analgesic effects of meloxicam were comparable to those of ketoprofen and superior to those of butorphanol. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:882–888)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of ultrasonography to detect morphologic changes in the pylorus during pyloroplasty performed laparoscopically or via conventional abdominal surgery in dogs.

Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Laparoscopic ultrasonography of the pylorus was performed in 5 dogs during laparoscopic pyloroplasty (LP), and ultrasonography of the pylorus was performed in 5 dogs during pyloroplasty via conventional abdominal surgery (CAP group). Appearance and dimensions of the pyloric sphincter were evaluated by use of a 7.5-MHz flexible laparoscopic linear-transducer probe.

Results—Mean ± SD duration of the ultrasonographic procedure was 11 ± 3.04 minutes (range, 6 to 18 minutes). In the CAP group, cross-sectional views of the pylorus revealed significant differences between the overall transverse external diameter, overall craniocaudal external diameter, and transverse diameter of the pyloric lumen. After surgery, the pyloric area was significantly increased. Longitudinal views of the pylorus revealed that width of the pyloric ring was significantly less after surgery. Transverse views of the pylorus for the LP group revealed a significant increase in the transverse diameter and craniocaudal diameter of the pyloric lumen after LP. The pyloric area was also significantly increased after surgery. Longitudinal views of the pylorus revealed that width of the pyloric ring was significantly less after surgery. Transverse diameter of the pyloric lumen was significantly increased after LP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results of this study suggests that ultrasonography is useful for detecting relevant morphologic changes in the pyloric sphincter after pyloroplasty. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1099–1104)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate pharmacokinetics of once daily IV administration of gentamicin sulfate to adult horses that had abdominal surgery.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

28 adult horses that underwent abdominal surgery for colic.

Procedure

14 horses were treated with each dosage of gentamicin (ie, 6.6 or 4 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) and blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. Plasma gentamicin concentrations were measured by use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Pharmacokinetic analysis measured the elimination half-life, volume of distribution, and gentamicin total systemic clearance. Treatment outcome, CBC, and serum creatinine concentrations were recorded.

Results

1 horse in the high-dosage group died. All other horses successfully recovered, and did not develop bacterial infection or have evidence of drug toxicosis resulting in renal injury. Mean pharmacokinetic variables for gentamicin administration at a high or low dosage (ie, 6.6 or 4 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) were half-life of 1.47 and 1.61 hours, volume of distribution of 0.17 and 0.17 L/kg, and systemic clearance of 1.27 and 1.2 ml/kg/min, respectively. Mean serum creatinine concentration was 1.74 and 1.71 for the high and low dosages, respectively, and serum creatinine concentration was not correlated with gentamicin clearance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Gentamicin administration at a dosage of 4 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours, will result in plasma concentrations that are adequate against susceptible bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≤ 2.0 μg/ml. Gentamicin administration at a calculated dosage of 6.8 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours will result in optimum plasma concentrations against susceptible bacteria with a MIC of ≤ 4.0 μg/ml. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:503–506)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

G potassium were associated with risk of nosocomial Salmonella infections. Although abdominal surgery and high caseload have been hypothesized as important contributors expected to increase the risk of nosocomial Salmonella infections, results of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report perioperative complications and client-perceived outcome following laparoscopic surgical treatment for sliding hiatal hernia (SHH) in dogs.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs (n = 9).

METHODS

Medical records were reviewed and perioperative data collected including preoperative diagnostic imaging, operative details, complications, and need for conversion to open celiotomy. A single-incision, multicannulated port was inserted in the subumbilical region followed by placement of an additional 2 or 3 instrument portals. Hiatal plication, esophagopexy, and left-sided gastropexy were performed laparoscopically. Follow-up information was collected with telephone interview with the owners and/or referring veterinarian. A standardized questionnaire was completed by dog owners postoperatively.

RESULTS

Intraoperative pneumothorax occurred in 5 of 9 (55.6%) dogs and resulted in conversion to open celiotomy in 2 (22.2%) dogs. In 4 dogs, pneumothorax was suspected to be the result of progressive leakage of capnoperitoneum through the suture bite holes of the esophageal hiatal plication sutures. Hiatal plication was performed using intracorporeal simple interrupted sutures (n = 4) or a simple continuous pattern with barbed suture (4). Esophagopexy was performed using barbed suture in all dogs. Gastropexy was performed using a total laparoscopic technique (n = 4) or laparoscopic-assisted technique (3). Using a standardized questionnaire, dog owners perceived a postoperative improvement in regurgitation after eating and regurgitation after excitement/increased activity.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Laparoscopic treatment of SHH resulted in owner-perceived improvement in clinical signs. Intraoperative pneumothorax occurred in a high proportion of dogs but did not result in long-term sequelae.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

records review Forty-six potential risk factors were analyzed. These included signalment variables; history of gastrointestinal disease, abdominal surgery (gastropexy and other laparoscopic or open procedures), and aggression; results of behavioral

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association