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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial detailing how to perform “blind” and ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis for diagnostic and therapeutic guidance, and to provide a brief demonstration of intra-abdominal pressure measurement (IAP).

ANIMALS

Any cat or dog with suspicion of free abdominal effusion or patients requiring measurement of IAP.

METHODS

Abdominocentesis should be performed when there is high suspicion for peritoneal effusion based on physical exam and/or diagnostic imaging. The 4-quadrant tap uses 20-gauge or larger needles placed blindly in ≥ 1 of the 4 quadrants of the abdomen to collect abdominal fluid. In contrast, ultrasound allows visualization of fluid in the abdomen prior to percutaneous insertion of a needle and syringe to collect fluid. Regardless of collection technique, fluid should have immediate cytologic analysis and later can be submitted for biochemical parameters, additional cellular analysis by a pathologist, and culture and sensitivity (in rare cases if indicated). Intravesicular bladder pressure measurement using a manometer–urinary catheter system approximates the IAP when there is concern for organ hypoperfusion and compartment syndrome.

RESULTS

Abdominocentesis can be performed with and without the use of ultrasound guidance. Intravesicular bladder pressure measurement is used to diagnose and trend IAP values before and after treatments are performed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Abdominocentesis is a simple and safe technique that all small animal clinicians should be comfortable performing. Effusion sampling can guide further diagnostics and treatments. Measurement of IAP is simple and requires no specialized equipment.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Additionally, approximately half of the cats in that study 6 had radiographic evidence of a focal loss of peritoneal detail consistent with abdominal effusion. Similarly, in a prospective study 10 evaluating DC in 15 cats that did not undergo UC, 8 cats had

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

%). Five of the 6 cats that developed postoperative abdominal effusion had uroabdomen; the type of effusion in the remaining cat was not determined. Of the 5 cats with a postoperative uroabdomen, 4 had undergone ureterotomy; in the cat that did not undergo

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

abdominal serosal detail consistent with abdominal effusion, free air in the abdomen, loss of integrity of the right abdominal wall with apparent herniation of the small intestines into the subcutaneous tissues, and contusions involving the right middle lung

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

review of the images or imaging reports, the dog was excluded from the study. Data collected included severity of any abdominal effusion; diameter and number of splenic masses; severity of any splenic mass inhomogeneity; presence of 0, 1, or ≥ 2 liver

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

documented the presence of abdominal effusion, if total serum bilirubin concentration was ≤ 0.4 mg/dL (laboratory reference range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL), and if there was surgical confirmation of gallbladder rupture during exploratory laparotomy. Medical

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. In order of onset, features in these dogs included anorexia (20/22; 91%), lethargy (19/22; 86%), vomiting (20/22; 91%), jaundice (16/22; 73%), diarrhea (18/22; 81%; frequently associated with melena progressing to hematochezia), abdominal effusion (14

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and laboratory findings associated with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia in Yorkshire Terriers.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 purebred or crossbred Yorkshire Terriers with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Results—Of 8 dogs with these signs, 5 had Yorkshire Terrier breeding. Common findings were diarrhea, abdominal effusion, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypocalcemia (ionized calcium), hypomagnesemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Yorkshire Terriers are at increased risk for development of protein-losing enteropathy with hypomagnesemia and decreased ionized calcium concentration. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia may have a related pathogenesis involving intestinal loss, malabsorption, and abnormalities of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Serum electrolyte replacement may be required to avoid neurologic and metabolic problems. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 703–706)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologically confirmed acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) or chronic nonsuppurative pancreatitis (CP) and identify features that may be useful in the antemortem differentiation of these disorders.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—63 cats with histologically confirmed ANP (n = 30) or CP (33).

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, clinicopathologic findings, and results of radiography and ultrasonography.

Results—Cats in both groups had similar nonspecific clinical signs, physical examination findings, and radiographic and ultrasonographic abnormalities. Abdominal ultrasonographic abnormalities, including hypoechoic pancreas, hyperechoic mesentery, and abdominal effusion, were found in cats in both groups and, therefore, were not specific for ANP. Cats with CP were significantly more likely to have concurrent diseases than were cats with ANP (100 and 83%, respectively). Clinicopathologic abnormalities were similar between groups; however, serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in cats with CP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ANP and CP in cats cannot be distinguished from each other solely on the basis of history, physical examination findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, radiographic abnormalities, or ultrasonographic abnormalities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:469–474)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical signs, diagnostic findings, and outcome in dogs with idiopathic intrahepatic portal hypertension.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—33 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with portal hypertension of intra-abdominal origin were reviewed. Dogs with intra-abdominal portal hypertension of vascular causes or with hepatic histopathologic changes consistent with severe diffuse hepatobiliary disease were excluded. History and results of physical examination, clinicopathologic tests, diagnostic imaging studies, histologic examination, and treatment were summarized. Outcome was determined in 26 dogs.

Results—Dogs were referred most often because of ascites, intermittent vomiting or diarrhea, and polydipsia of several months' duration. Microcytosis, high serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities, hepatic dysfunction, urine specific gravity ≤ 1.021, and abdominal transudate were the predominant clinicopathologic features. Microhepatia, abdominal effusion, and multiple anomalous venous anastomoses were the major findings of diagnostic imaging. Hepatic histopathologic changes were consistent with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension and were indistinguishable from those of dogs with surgically created portocaval anastomosis. Outcome was determined for 19 dogs released from hospital; 13 dogs remained healthy with mostly palliative treatment for periods of 5 months to 9 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The clinical signs, clinicopathologic test results, portal pressure, and gross appearance of the liver of dogs with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension may be identical to those of dogs with cirrhosis; therefore liver biopsy is crucial. Because the prognosis for idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension is generally favorable, owners of affected dogs should be discouraged from choosing euthanasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 218:392–399)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association