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patient. 7 Factors that preclude using previously published data as reference intervals are based on these data being derived from an inadequate number of healthy subjects, low frequency of sampling as well as a short sampling period. Trinidad, the

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

have a significant impact on air quality. 1 – 3 With a population of just less than 1.4 million, there is an estimated 1 million motor vehicles on the nation’s roads. 4 , 5 Black carbon emission concentrations near major roads in Trinidad reached

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A total of 73 breeding-age and primigravid Jersey heifers in 4 herds was randomly allotted to treatment and control groups according to expected calving date. Thirty-five heifers were injected intramammarily with a nonlactating cow product containing penicillin/streptomycin. Thirty-eight heifers served as untreated controls. Of the 35 treated heifers, 34 (97.1%) were infected at time of treatment. In the untreated control group, all 38 heifers (100%) were infected at treatment time. At parturition, prevalence of intramammary infection in treated heifers decreased to 40%, whereas in the control group, prevalence remained about the same (97.4% of heifers). Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in treated heifers was reduced from 17.1% to 2.9% after treatment. In the control group, prevalence of S aureus mastitis decreased from 26.3% to l5.8%. Heifers treated during the second trimester of pregnancy had the greatest reduction in prevalence of mastitis and in somatic cell count at parturition, compared with controls. Findings indicated that intramammary treatment during pregnancy in primigravid heifers was effective in reducing prevalence of mastitis and somatic cell counts at parturition.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets.

SAMPLE

93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice).

PROCEDURES

An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data.

RESULTS

The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of reproductive and infectious diseases in tropical cattle in the Tambopata and Tahuamanu Provinces in the department of Madre de Dios, Peru.

SAMPLE

156 bovines from 7 cattle farms were sampled. These farms used exclusive grazing for food and natural mating for reproduction and did not have sanitary or vaccination programs.

METHODS

The serum of blood samples was subjected to ELISA with commercial kits for the detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), Leptospira interrogans, pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), orbivirus bluetongue virus (BTV), and herpesvirus bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV). The data were analyzed by means of association tests with χ2 (P < .05) and Spearman rank correlation (P < .05) in the SPSS v.15.0 software (IBM Corp).

RESULTS

A low prevalence of antibodies to L interrogans, N caninum, M avium subsp paratuberculosis, bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 was found, but it was high to BTV, BLV, and BHV (100%, 53.85%, and 72.44%, respectively). The presence of BLV and BHV was higher in the Las Piedras District, bovines less than 5 years old, and cattle with breed characteristics of zebu and crossbred (P < .01). In addition, there was a significant correlation between both infections, showing 83.3% of BLV positivity that were also BHV positive (P < .01).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The high prevalence of antibodies to BTV, BHV, and BLV could be due to livestock management practices, direct contact with infected animals, and variation of the presence of vectors and natural reservoirs in the context of climate change in the tropics.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate sensitivity and specificity of 4 commonly used brucellosis screening tests in cattle and domestic water buffalo of Trinidad, and to compare test parameter estimates between cattle and water buffalo.

Animals—391 cattle and 381 water buffalo.

Procedure—4 Brucella-infected herds (2 cattle and 2 water buffalo) and 4 herds (2 of each species) considered to be brucellosis-free were selected. A minimum of 100 animals, or all animals > 1 year of age, were tested from each herd. Serum samples were evaluated for Brucella-specific antibodies by use of standard plate agglutination test (SPAT), card test (CT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and standard tube agglutination test (STAT). A Bayesian approach was used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests without the use of a gold standard, assuming conditional independence of tests.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity estimates in cattle, respectively, were SPAT, 66.7 and 98.9; CT, 72.7 and 99.6; BPAT, 88.1 and 98.1; and STAT, 80.2 and 99.3. Corresponding test estimates in water buffalo, respectively, were SPAT, 51.4 and 99.3; CT, 90.4 and 99.4; BPAT, 96.3 and 90.7; and STAT, 75.0 and 98.8. Sensitivity of the CT and specificity of the BPAT were different between cattle and water buffalo with at least 95% probability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Brucellosis serologic test performance varied by species tested, but BPAT had the highest sensitivity for screening cattle and water buffalo. Sensitivity and specificity of more than 2 screening tests can be estimated simultaneously without a gold standard by use of Bayesian techniques. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1598–1605)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association