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pressure in all 4 cardiac chambers. 14 , 15 This requires floating a Swan Ganz catheter from the jugular vein to a branch of the pulmonary artery. If CP is present, the pulmonary wedge pressure, right ventricular diastolic pressure, right atrial pressure

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

1970. 6 , 7 The thermodilution technique requires placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter in the patient and injection of chilled physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (injectate) of a known temperature and volume through a proximal catheter port directly

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Each dog was positioned in left lateral recumbency. A 6F, 12-cm introducer sheath i was percutaneously inserted into the right external jugular vein by means of the Seldinger technique, and fluoroscopic guidance was used to advance a 5F, 75-cm Swan-Ganz

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

collection of arterial blood samples. A 5F Swan-Ganz catheter j was aseptically inserted into the left jugular vein and advanced into the lumen of the pulmonary artery; its position was confirmed by a characteristic pressure waveform and pressure values

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

by the Seldinger technique. 15 A 5F Swan-Ganz thermodilution catheter e was advanced under fluoroscopic guidance and positioned with the tip in the main pulmonary artery. The sPAP, mPAP, dPAP, oPAP, and RAP were measured by use of a disposable

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To establish reference values for right ventricular maximal rate of increase in pressure (dP/dtmax) in horses and determine the usefulness of this variable to evaluate cardiac contractility.

Animals

15 crossbred horses, 3 to 20 years old.

Procedure

Cardiac catheterization was performed, using a high-fidelity catheter tip micromanometer, to determine right ventricular dP/dtmax. The following mathematic corrections were made: for preload, (dP/dtmax)/instantaneous total pressure, (dP/dtmax)/instantaneous developed pressure, and (dP/dtmax)/end diastolic pressure; for afterload, (dP/dtCPIP)/common peak isovolumic pressure. Wedge pressure was measured simultaneously, using a Swan-Ganz catheter. A negative inotropic drug, detomidine hydrochloride, was administered to 6 horses to examine the effect of the negative inotropic drug on right ventricular dP/dtmax and derived variables.

Results

The mean right ventricular dP/dtmax was 477 (± 84.1) mm Hg/s in 15 horses. A 40% decrease in dP/dtmax was found for 30 minutes after detomidine administration. Variables that correct for preload and afterload were influenced similarly. Detomidine administration also caused a 24% increase in mean wedge pressure, probably indicating reduced left-sided cardiac contractility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Right ventricular dP/dtmax may be a useful clinical variable for determining acute changes in cardiac contractility in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1508–1512)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of one-lung ventilation on oxygen delivery in anesthetized dogs with an open thoracic cavity.

Animals—8 clinically normal adult Walker Hound dogs.

Procedure—Each dog was anesthetized and subjected to one-lung ventilation during a period when it had an open thoracic cavity. A Swan-Ganz catheter was used to measure hemodynamic variables and obtain mixed-venous blood samples. A catheter was inserted in the dorsal pedal artery to measure arterial pressure and obtain arterial blood samples. Oxygen delivery index was calculated and used to assess effects of one-lung ventilation on cardiopulmonary function. Effects on hemodynamic and pulmonary variables were analyzed.

Results—One-lung ventilation caused significant decreases in PaO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), mixed-venous oxygen saturation, and arterial oxygen content (CaO2). One-lung ventilation caused significant increases in PaCO2, physiologic dead space, and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference. Changes in SaO2, CaO2, and PaCO2, although significantly different, were not considered to be of clinical importance. One-lung ventilation induced a significant increase in pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and shunt fraction. One-lung ventilation did not have a significant effect on cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, pulmonary vascular resistance index, and oxygen delivery index.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—One-lung ventilation affected gas exchange and hemodynamic function, although oxygen delivery in clinically normal dogs was not affected during a period with an open thoracic cavity. One-lung ventilation can be used safely in healthy dogs with an open thoracic cavity during surgery. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:443–448)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

determination. A 22-gauge catheter g was placed in the right metatarsal artery of each dog to perform invasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure and blood sample collection for blood lactate measurements. A Swan-Ganz catheter h was placed in the left

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

approaching critical compromise in patients with progressive intraoperative hemorrhage. Arterial blood pressure is poorly correlated with tissue perfusion. 5 Hemodynamic monitoring via a pulmonary artery (Swan-Ganz) catheter can provide precise evaluation of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

30 minutes to permit catheterization of the auricular artery by use of an indwelling catheter e and placement of a Swan-Ganz thermodilution catheter f into the pulmonary artery. The 10% ET DES was chosen because this concentration had provided a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research