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expression in mast cells is influenced by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. 12 This pathway can control the release of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-8. Studies 13 , 14 have verified that the H4R exhibits functional

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

by which many of these dietary components cause effects is through reducing oxidative stress and associated stress-activated cellularsignaling pathways. Dietary modulation of MAPK and PI3K pathways has emerged as a potential target of dietary

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

present report. Recent research into canine PNETs suggests that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt (a serine-threonine kinase also known as protein kinase B) pathways may be involved in the development

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.2174/138161212800626210 6. Beck JT , Ismail A , Tolomeo C . Targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway: an emerging treatment strategy for squamous cell lung carcinoma . Cancer Treat Rev 2014 ; 40 : 980

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.ymthe.2018.05.020 35. Zhao C , Sun W , Zhang P , miR-214 promotes osteoclastogenesis by targeting Pten/PI3k/Akt pathway . RNA Biol 2015 ; 12 : 343 – 353 . 10.1080/15476286.2015.1017205 36. Tang H , Zhang J , Yu Z

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

lactic acid, which is not caused in the presence of lactate or acidic pH only. 20 An acidic environment induces the activation of human PMNs by a mechanism dependent on the activation of PI3K or Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways, 37

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Jiang BH Liu LZ . PI3K/PTEN signaling in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis . Adv Cancer Res 2009 ; 102 : 19 – 65 . 10.1016/S0065-230X(09)02002-8 5 Soares JA Leite FG Andrade LG , et al. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway early

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

as NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, NLRP3 inflammasome, RANKL/RANK, and Beclin 1/Sirt1. 15 , 16 Additionally, several in vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of Copits (or berberine) against various strains of Staphylococccus spp , the most

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

endothelial progenitor cells from peripheral blood . Cell Prolif 2011 ; 44 : 352 – 359 . 10.1111/j.1365-2184.2011.00764.x 13. Yang L , Guo XG , Du CQ , Interleukin-1β increases activity of human endothelial progenitor cells: involvement of PI3

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

classical (CD14 ++ CD16 - ) monocytes via PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent signalling pathway . Immunobiology 2017 ; 222 : 1 – 10 . 10.1016/j.imbio.2015.06.019 16. Haywood-Watson RJ , Holcomb JB , Gonzalez EA , Modulation of syndecan-1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research