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-glucosaminidase (NAG) is a lysosomal enzyme, which has been described as a marker of acute tubular necrosis in birds. 14 – 16 It is detectable in reptile plasma. 17 Among tested organs, NAG is found preferentially in the renal tissue of pigeons, 16 but its

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase is a high–molecular-weight (150-kDa) lysosomal enzyme that may be detected in many mammalian tissues, serum, and urine. 1,2 In the kidney, the highest activity of NAG is found in the epithelial cells of the proximal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

molecular weight (composed of repeating disaccharides of d -glucuronic acid and NAG) of HA in synovial fluid, and a subsequent reduction in volume and viscosity of the synovial fluid, greatly diminish joint viscoelasticity. 2,9 Synovial fluid dilution

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Numerous renal tubular enzymes are excreted in the urine of mammals. Among those enzymes are NAG and GGT. These urinary enzymes are primarily located in the lysosomes and brush border, respectively, of the proximal convoluted tubule. 1 This

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

lining the urothelium. However, to our knowledge, clinical studies of the effects of NAG on GAG alteration in the urinary bladder in cats with IC have not been reported. The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the effects of oral

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

renal damage in avian species include uric acid and BUN concentrations, 22,23 urinalysis variables, 22–24 urinalysis tubular casts, 25–28 and NAG activity. 29,30 N -acetyl-β- d -glucosaminidase is an exoglycolytic enzyme found in lysosomes of renal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

therapeutic intervention. An ideal indicator can be measured rapidly from a single urine sample without the need to collect urine for 24 hours. Activities of a variety of enzymes, such as GGT, 2–4 ALP, 2,3 LDH, 2 and NAG, 2–7 have been evaluated in urine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To measure N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in urine of cows with renal diseases and to correlate values for NAG activity with renal lesions.

Animals

8 lactating Holstein cows and a Japanese Shorthorn cow, all of which had renal disease.

Procedure

Urine samples were collected, and urinary NAG activity and creatinine concentration were measured. The NAG activity was expressed as units per gram of creatinine (NAG index). Cows were euthanatized, necropsy was performed, and correlations between results for urinary NAG index and histopathologic findings for the kidneys were evaluated.

Results

The NAG activity and NAG index in urine samples obtained from cows with interstitial nephritis were high, ranging from 4.2 to 13.6 U/L and 3.5 to 23.0 U/g, respectively. A cow with renal amyloidosis also had high values for urinary NAG activity and NAG index. Histologic examination of the kidneys revealed various kinds of parenchymal lesions. However, urinary NAG index in cows with enzootic bovine leukosis was low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Cows with renal diseases had high urinary NAG indexes that correlated well with their renal lesions, except for cows with enzootic bovine leukosis. Therefore, measurement of NAG index in urine samples has the potential to provide new perspectives on clinical diagnosis of renal disease in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60: 410-413)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To measure urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity of healthy cattle, using 3 substrates (4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide, sodio-m-cresolsulfonphthaleinyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide), and to determine the relations between the obtained values and age and sex of cattle.

Animals

50 healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows and 10 healthy Holstein-Friesian steers.

Procedure

Untimed urine samples were collected, and urine NAG activity was measured, using the 3 aforementioned methods. Urine creatinine concentration also was measured, and NAG activity was expressed as units per gram of creatinine (NAG index). Correlations between urine NAG activity and age and sex of cattle were investigated. Furthermore, correlations among data obtained by each of the 3 methods were determined.

Results

Urine NAG activity in cows measured by each of the 3 methods was < 3.0 U/L. Urine NAG activity in steers was significantly higher than that in cows. However, there was no significant difference between the sexes in NAG index. There were no significant differences in mean values of NAG activity and index among cows of various age groups. Individual values of urine NAG activity determined by each method correlated significantly with each other.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Urine NAG activity and NAG index of healthy cattle will be useful for determining diagnostic criteria of renal disease in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1197–1200)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effects of administration of a commercially available extract of Gingko biloba (egb) on bromethalin-induced brain lipid peroxidation and cerebral edema in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was determined. Gingko biloba extract was given (100 mg/kg) by gavage immediately after bromethalin (1.0 mg/kg) administration. Rats were euthanatized at 24 hours after dosing. Brain lipid peroxidation was determined by measurement of brain malonaldehyde-thiobarbituric acid chromophore (mda-tba) concentration, brain sodium concentration, and brain water content.

Treatment of bromethalin-dosed rats (10/group) with egb was associated with a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in clinical sign severity, compared with bromethalin-dosed saline solution-treated rats. All rats given bromethalin and saline solution developed clinical signs of toxicosis including CNS depression, hind limb weakness, ataxia, paralysis, and coma. Some rats given bromethalin and egb developed clinical signs, however, none developed hind limb paralysis. The brain mda-tba concentration (2.4 ± 0.5 Δ mda-tba concentration/mg of protein), percentage of water in brain tissue (80.3 ± 0.30%), and brain sodium concentration (6.68 ± 0.21 mg/g of dry weight) were significantly increased in rats given bromethalin and saline solution, compared with control rats given saline solution (1.0 ± 0.1 Δ mda-tba concentration/mg of protein; 78.1 ± 0.33% water in brain tissue; 4.83 ± 0.30 mg of brain Na+/g of dry weight) and rats given bromethalin and egb (1.6 ± 0.2 Δ mda-tba concentration/mg of protein; 79.3 ± 0.31% water in brain tissue; 5.37 ± 0.34 mg of brain Na+/g of dry weight). The mda-tba concentration (1.2 ± 0.2 Δ mda-tba concentration/mg of protein), percentage of water in brain tissue (78.7 ± 0.40%), and brain sodium concentration (4.93 ± 0.26 mg/g of dry weight) increased slightly in control rats given egb.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research