matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-1, -3, and -13 are up-regulated. 15 , 16 However, there is minimal information on how macrophage-induced inflammatory cytokines impact the bioactivities of ECM remodeling enzymes, MMPs, and their inhibitors
relative composition of collagen types determines the elastic properties of tissue. 10 Furthermore, MMP2 , HOXA10 , and elastin ( ELN ) genes have been found to be related to the collagen metabolism process in humans, 11–13 and COL2A1 was discovered
, including MMPs.
Matrix metalloproteinases are extracellular matrix proteases that are most active during inflammation and disease. 3 Various structural cells constitutively express MMP-2; however, MMP-9 is expressed primarily by inflammatory cells
Tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis require controlled degradation of the ECM. There are several families of ECM-degrading enzymes, the most extensive of which are the MMPs. They belong to a multigene family of zinc-containing, calcium
endopeptidases containing Zn 2+ that are classically assigned to one of several categories, including collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, and matrilysins, according to their substrate. 7 Metalloproteinase-2 and MMP-9, which are gelatinases, degrade gelatin
contributing mechanism is the secretion of enzymes that break down extracellular matrix, allowing subsequent tumor cell invasion. Several enzymes have been associated with this activity in human and canine cancers. 16
The MMPs are a family of zinc
constituents of the basement membrane, type VII collagen of the anchoring fibrils can be degraded by MMPs, which play a major role in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix in several physiologic and pathological processes. 8,9 Of all known MMPs, only 2
extracellular components are regulated by a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes (ie, the MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors. 3 Various cell types within the myocardium, including the myocytes, can express and synthesize MMPs, 4 which are secreted into
mediators, particularly MMPs. The MMPs are a group of calcium- and zinc-dependent proteinases that play a crucial role in the turnover of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. On the basis of their structural characteristics and substrate
osteoarthritic samples suggest that MMP-13, rather than IL-1, is emerging as the primary catabolic molecule responsible for matrix degradation.
Results of most microarray studies 12–16 on normal (unaffected) and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage or