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to IL-1β, namely IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). A clinical trial by Chevalier et al 9 evaluated intra-articular recombinant IL-1ra protein (anakinra) for patients with OA; a single injection (150 mg) resulted in significant improvement on day 4

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

injuries: platelet-rich plasma and IL-1 receptor antagonist protein . Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2011 ; 27 : 275 – 298 . 10.1016/j.cveq.2011.05.001 5. Hraha TH Doremus KM McIlwraith CW , et al. Autologous conditioned serum: the comparative

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The role of interleukin 1 (il-1) as an inflammatory mediator during mastitis and the therapeutic effect of recombinant human il-1 receptor antagonist (il-1ra) for bovine mastitis was studied. Cows were intramammarily infused with lipopolysaccharide (25 μg) in 1 mammary gland. Half the cows also received infusions of 5 mg of il-1ra into the same mammary gland just prior to endotoxin infusion and 4, 8, and 12 hours later. After endotoxin infusion, tumor necrosis factor and high il-1 bioactivity were detected in whey from infused glands. Vascular permeability changes and neutrophil accumulation in milk paralleled the appearance of cytokines. A systemic reaction, characterized by pyrexia and an increase in blood cortisol concentration, also were observed. Milk yield was inhibited and milk composition was altered in infused and noninfused glands. The increase in il-1 bioactivity in milk after endotoxin infusion was almost completely prevented in glands receiving il-lra. However, il-lra had no effect on local inflammation, systemic reaction, or impairment in productive performance. These results indicate that il-1 does not mediate its effect within the milk compartment, and suggest either that il-1 is not critical to the mastitic response or that intramammary infusion of il-1ra does not place the antagonist where il-1 interacts with its receptor.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of blood product containing high concentrations of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, IGF-1, and TGF-β. 16 In horses, ACS has been reported to improve clinical signs of osteoarthritis in horses

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

control of IL-1β bioactivity are complex. Bioactivity of IL-1β is blocked by an IL-1 receptor antagonist that binds to the IL-1 receptor type 1. Occupation of the receptor by the IL-1 receptor antagonist does not result in intracellular signal transduction

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

an IL-1β–induced increase in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein or mRNA synthesis in synoviocytes. This suggests that there are mediators in addition to IL-1 receptor antagonist protein that are capable of protecting cartilage from IL-1β

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

< 0.001) concentrations in synovial fluid samples was detected on day 35 ( Figure 5 ). In addition, on day 36, IL-1 receptor antagonist protein concentration was significantly increased ( P = 0.02) and remained elevated on day 49 ( P = 0.03). Peaks

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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): 5771 – 5777 . doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.180.9.5771 18424693 47. Trittibach P , Barker SE , Broderick CA , et al . Lentiviral-vector-mediated expression of murine IL-1 receptor antagonist or IL-10 reduces the severity of endotoxin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and IL-1 receptor antagonist production as well as interference with integrin signaling, induction of chondrocyte apoptosis, stimulation of metalloproteinase production and activation, and inactivation of tissue inhibitors of MMPs. 13 The PPARγ

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

should be investigated. ABBREVIATIONS ACS Autologous conditioned serum IL Interleukin IL-1Ra IL-1 receptor antagonist GAG Glycosaminoglycan PG Prostaglandin SOFG Safranin-O fast green a. Frisbie DD, Al-Sobayil F, Billinghurst

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research