of the body localized the lesion to the right prosencephalon ( Table 1 ) . The bilateral miosis, third eyelid protrusion, and mild ptosis of the lower eyelids were suggestive of bilateral oculosympathetic dysfunction (Hornersyndrome). The
Hornersyndrome, pain when opening the mouth, and occasional sneezing and retching. General physical examination was normal besides a respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute.
The neurologic localization in
simultaneously as a single-stage procedure.
The most common complications following VBO in cats include persistent otic infection, Hornersyndrome, vestibular signs, facial nerve paralysis, and local recurrence of the inflammatory polyp or tumor. 1–9 Although
and otitis in cats. 1,3,5,6,12–17 Clinical signs include those consistent with obstructive upper respiratory tract disease; nasal, ocular, or otic discharge; change in voice; swallowing difficulties; head tilt; Hornersyndrome; nystagmus; ataxia
peripheral vestibular disease without motor deficits, Hornersyndrome, or facial nerve paralysis. For purposes of the present study, unilateral peripheral vestibular disease was considered to be a sign of middle ear disease because even though this condition
left guttural pouch was more extensive than on the previous examination but had not invaded the structures or vasculature of the lateral compartment ( Figure 3 ). The mare had left-sided Hornersyndrome and atrophy of the right side of the tongue
A 9-year-old spayed female Maine Coon cat was presented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna with the history of nonpruritic bilateral ear disease and unilateral Hornersyndrome. Additionally, the patient had recurrent
hospitalization. The surgeon performed a complete physical examination on all cats before discharge from the hospital and 15 days after surgery. Any new clinical signs were considered as complications. Hornersyndrome and peripheral vestibular syndrome that were
Procedure—A programmable pacemaker-like device
designed to deliver intermittent stimulation to the left
cervical trunk of the vagus was surgically implanted in
each dog. Dogs were assigned randomly to two 13-
week test periods, 1 with nerve stimulation and 1
without nerve stimulation. Owners recorded data on
seizure frequency, duration, and intensity, as well as
Results—No significant difference in seizure frequency,
duration, or severity was detected between
overall 13-week treatment and control periods.
During the final 4 weeks of the treatment period, a
significant decrease in mean seizure frequency
(34.4%) was detected, compared with the control
period. Complications included transient bradycardia,
asystole, and apnea during intraoperative device testing,
and seroma formation, subcutaneous migration
of the generator, and transient Horner's syndrome
during the 14-day period between surgery and suture
removal. No adverse effects of stimulation were
detected, and most owners were satisfied with the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vagal nerve
stimulation is a potentially safe approach to seizure
control that appears to be efficacious in certain dogs
and should be considered a possible treatment option
when antiepileptic medications are ineffective. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:977–983)
Objective—To determine the efficacy and safety of
percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment
of hyperthyroidism caused by bilateral hyperplastic
thyroid nodules in cats.
Procedure—Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the
basis of clinical signs and increased serum total thyroxine
(TT4) concentrations. The presence of 2 cervical
thyroid nodules was confirmed by use of ultrasonography
and technetium Tc 99m albumin thyroid scans.
After the death of 1 cat that received PEI in both thyroid
nodules at the same time, the protocol was
changed to injecting ethanol into 1 nodule at a time,
with at least 1 month between injections. Clinical
signs, serum TT4 concentrations, serum ionized calcium
concentrations, laryngeal function, findings on
ultrasonographic examinations of the ventral cervical
region, and results of thyroid scans were monitored.
Results—Serum TT4 concentrations transiently
decreased in all 6 cats (into the reference range in 5 of
6 cats) within 4 days of the first staged ethanol injection.
Each subsequent injection resulted in a transient
decrease in serum TT4 concentration. The longest period
of euthyroidism was 27 weeks. Adverse effects
included Horner's syndrome, dysphonia, and laryngeal
paralysis. One cat died of unrelated causes. One cat
underwent bilateral thyroidectomy, 2 cats were treated
with methimazole, and 2 cats that had increased
serum TT4 concentrations were not treated further,
because they remained clinically normal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Percutaneous
ethanol ablation of bilateral thyroid nodules as a treatment
for cats with hyperthyroidism is not recommended.
This treatment is not as efficacious as the
medical and surgical treatments presently used.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1293–1297)