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details of how molecular changes in the virus impact viral phenotype, including the ability to infect and emerge as a pathogen in a novel host. H5 and H7 HPAI have been a continual threat to agricultural poultry as a result of the spontaneous emergence of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

identified as a spillover into a nonhuman mammal is shaded dark blue. The spillover host is shown as S (swine), D (dog), P (pinniped), or C (cetecean). A subtype that became endemic within the spillover mammalian host is marked (asterisk). HPAI = High

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

continents. On the other hand, LPAI viruses (H5 and H7 subtypes) can mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses as a result of insertion mutations in the cleavage site of the HA gene or deletion mutations in the NA gene and cause clinical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The FAST Eggs Plan is a voluntary plan for commercial egg producers intended to facilitate business continuity following an outbreak of HPAI. Participation in the FAST Eggs Plan will reduce the time required for regulatory officials to determine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

enters third year of HPAI epizootic Deadly bird flu shows no signs of easing up as USDA continues vaccine trials By R. Scott Nolen The largest epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the nation’s history is entering its third

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In February 2004, an HPAI virus was confirmed to have infected a flock of broiler chickens in Gonzales County, Texas. Subsequent epidemiologic investigation identified infected birds in 2 live-bird markets in the area of Houston, Tex; these

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Concern regarding the implications of AI outbreaks throughout the world is growing. This concern stems, in part, from the potential for a human influenza pandemic originating from HPAI virus infections. 1–3 However, outbreaks of a specific strain

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. You’re all going to get through this together.” HPAI identified in US dairy cattle On March 25, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of zoonoses such as salmonellosis and HPAI. Owners who view their animals as pets may not maintain adequate biosecurity and thereby put themselves and others at risk for zoonotic disease. In fact, close contact with backyard poultry has been

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

influenza (HPAI) in the United States . Available at: www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/hpai/2015-hpai-final-report.pdf . Accessed May 31, 2020 .

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association