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product. 2 Infectious diseases are major constraints in sheep and goat production. 3 Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease in ruminants. It is estimated that FMD is circulating in 77% of the world's livestock population, including Asia, the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease has a tremendous impact on susceptible livestock in terms of production loss as well as economic disruptions as a result of trade restrictions. The FMD

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed livestock and wildlife. It causes vesicular lesions and erosions in the mouth and on the feet and teats of affected animals. The disease is highly

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, except for Indonesia and parts of Malaysia and the Philippines. Parts of Southeast Asia, including southern Thailand, southern Myanmar, and mainland Malaysia, are believed to have acquired FMD from outside sources through movement of livestock. This

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

role of endothelial function in heart disease in dogs has not been investigated because of the lack of an appropriate measurement technique. 16–18 The standard technique for measuring endothelial dysfunction in human patients is assessment of FMD

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

recognized marker of cardiovascular risk in human patients. 3 Human endothelial function is usually assessed by measurement of brachial artery FMD, which represents the percentage change in arterial diameter that follows a local increase in blood flow. 4

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

humans is determination of FMD. 2 Shear stress caused by reactive hyperemia induces FMD following occlusion of an artery by use of a blood pressure cuff. 5 When induced in the recommended manner, 6 FMD develops predominantly as a result of local

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

measurements of the change from baseline in arterial diameter and blood flow velocity through these dilated conduit arteries. Flow-mediated vasodilation is impaired in humans with cardiovascular disease, and a decreased FMD response has been correlated with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the most economically important diseases affecting livestock worldwide, owing to its highly contagious nature, geographic distribution, and potential impact on international trade. 1,2 As an example, the 2001 FMD

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association