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improvements in diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI), benchmarking efforts are necessary. 6 Surveys are 1 tool for assessing DEI efforts that support a culture of accountability, self-assessment, and continuous improvement. 7 The AAVMC compiles demographic

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

in 2022, approximately 90% of veterinarians in the US are White, 48 and microaggressions are directed at under-resourced, underrepresented and marginalized communities. 49 Diversity or DEI work, however, should also include attention to retention

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of reduction of inspired oxygen fraction (Fio 2) or application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) after an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) in minimizing anesthesia-induced atelectasis in dogs.

Animals—30 healthy female dogs.

Procedures—During anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, dogs were mechanically ventilated under baseline conditions (tidal volume, 12 mL/kg; inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio, 1:2; Fio 2, 1; and zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP]). After 40 minutes, lungs were inflated (airway pressure, 40 cm H2O) for 20 seconds. Dogs were then exposed to baseline conditions (ZEEP100 group), baseline conditions with Fio 2 reduced to 0.4 (ZEEP40 group), or baseline conditions with PEEP at 5 cm H2O (PEEP100 group; 10 dogs/group). For each dog, arterial blood gas variables and respiratory system mechanics were evaluated and CT scans of the thorax were obtained before and at 5 (T5) and 30 (T30) minutes after the ARM.

Results—Compared with pre-ARM findings, atelectasis decreased and Pao 2:Fio 2 ratio increased at T5 in all groups. At T30, atelectasis and oxygenation returned to pre-ARM findings in the ZEEP100 group but remained similar to T5 findings in the other groups. At T5 and T30, lung static compliance in the PEEP100 group was higher than values in the other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of airway pressure of 40 cm H2O for 20 seconds followed by Fio 2 reduction to 0.4 or ventilation with PEEP (5 cm H2O) was effective in diminishing anesthesia-induced atelectasis and maintaining lung function in dogs, compared with the effects of mechanical ventilation providing an Fio 2 of 1.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effect of 2 concentrations of oxygen in inspired gas (fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] 1.0 or 0.4) on pulmonary aeration and gas exchange in dogs during inhalation anesthesia.

Animals—20 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Following administration of acepromazine and morphine, anesthesia was induced in each dog with thiopental and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (100% group; n = 10) or a mixture of 40% oxygen and air (40% group; 10). Dogs were placed in dorsal recumbency and were mechanically ventilated. After surgery, spiral computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed and PaO2, PaCO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (P[A–a]O2) were assessed. The lung CT images were analyzed, and the extent of hyperinflated (−1,000 to −901 Hounsfield units [HUs]), normally aerated (−900 to −501 HUs), poorly aerated (−500 to −101 HUs), or nonaerated (−100 to +100 HUs) areas was determined.

Results—Compared with the 100% oxygen group, the normally aerated lung area was significantly greater and the poorly aerated and nonaerated areas were significantly smaller in the 40% oxygen group. The time to CT (duration of surgery) was similar in both groups. Although PaCO2 was similar in both groups, PaO2 and P(A–a)O2 were significantly higher in the 100% oxygen group. In both groups, pulmonary atelectasis developed preferentially in caudal lung fields.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, mechanical ventilation with 40% oxygen appeared to maintain significantly better lung aeration and gas exchange than ventilation with 100% oxygen.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of 10 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung aeration and gas exchange in mechanically ventilated sheep during general anesthesia induced and maintained with propofol.

Animals—10 healthy adult Bergamasca sheep.

Procedures—Sheep were sedated with diazepam (0.4 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (5 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with propofol via constant rate infusion (0.4 mg/kg/min). Muscular paralysis was induced by administration of vecuronium (25 μg/kg, bolus IV) to facilitate mechanical ventilation. After intubation, sheep were positioned in right lateral recumbency and mechanically ventilated with pure oxygen and zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP). After 60 minutes, 10 cm H2O of PEEP was applied for 20 minutes. Spiral computed tomography of the thorax was performed, and data were recorded for hemodynamic and gas exchange variables and indicators of respiratory mechanics after 15 (T15), 30 (T30), and 60 (T60) minutes of ZEEP and after 20 minutes of PEEP (TPEEP). Computed tomography images were analyzed to determine the extent of atelectasis before and after PEEP application.

Results—At TPEEP, the volume of poorly aerated and atelectatic compartments was significantly smaller than at T15, T30, and T60, which indicated that there was PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment and clearance of anesthesia-induced atelectasis. Arterial oxygenation and static respiratory system compliance were significantly improved by use of PEEP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pulmonary atelectasis can develop in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep breathing pure oxygen; application of 10 cm H2O of PEEP significantly improved lung aeration and gas exchange.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To histologically identify glomerular lesions in dogs infected with Leishmania organisms.

Animals—41 dogs (17 sexually intact males and 14 sexually intact and 10 ovariohysterectomized females) that had positive results when tested for leishmaniosis as determined by use of serologic evaluation (indirect fluorescent antibody test, titers of 1:80 to 1:640) and direct microscopic identification of the protozoal organisms.

Procedure—Urine samples were collected by use of cystocentesis and examined by qualitative SDSagarose gel electrophoresis (AGE). All dogs had nonselective (glomerular) or mixed (glomerular and tubular) proteinemia. Specimens were obtained from each dog during ultrasound-assisted renal biopsy and used for histologic examination. Each specimen was stained with H&E, periodic acid–Schiff, Goldner's trichrome, methenamine silver, and Congo Red stains. Specimens were adequate for evaluation when they contained at least 5 glomeruli/section, except for specimens stained with Congo Red in which 1 glomerulus/section was adequate.

Results—Examination of renal biopsy specimens revealed various glomerular lesions in all dogs and interstitial or tubular (or both) lesions in 23 of 41 (55%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glomerular lesions that develop in dogs during infection with Leishmania organisms can be classified histologically as mesangial glomerulonephritis, membranous glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and focal segmental glomerulonephritis. Tubulointerstitial histopathologic conditions were not observed as the primary lesion, despite being evident in 23 of 41 (55%) dogs. Use of SDS-AGE for qualitative evaluation of proteinuria and successive collection of specimens during renal biopsies following diagnosis of nonselective glomerular proteinuria provides the possibility for early identification of renal lesions. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:558–561)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after SC administration to Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

Animals—23 healthy adult Hermann's tortoises (15 males and 8 females).

Procedures—Cefovecin (8.0 mg/kg) was injected once in the subcutis of the neck region of Hermann's tortoises, and blood samples were obtained at predetermined time points. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a noncompartmental model. Plasma protein concentration was quantified, and the percentage of cefovecin bound to protein was estimated with a centrifugation technique.

Results—Cefovecin was absorbed rapidly, reaching maximum plasma concentrations between 35 minutes and 2 hours after administration, with the exception of 1 group, in which it was reached after 4 hours. The mean ± SD time to maximum concentration was 1.22 ± 1.14 hours; area under the concentration-time curve was 220.35 ± 36.18 h•μg/mL The mean protein-bound fraction of cefovecin ranged from 41.3% to 47.5%. No adverse effects were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a single dose of cefovecin SC appeared to be well-tolerated in this population of tortoises. Results of pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the 2-week dosing interval suggested for dogs and cats cannot be considered effective in tortoises; however, further research is needed to determine therapeutic concentrations of the drug and appropriate dose ranges.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in supporting diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) across the veterinary profession and we are approaching this in multiple ways, including, but not limited to: A member data initiative to update and improve the AVMA’s ability to capture

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author:

for Teams to increase knowledge of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) principles and foster the advancement of DEI in the veterinary workplace. After you sign up (easy to do!), please invite every member of your team to also join the journey on

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association