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on diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and to summarize perspectives on the importance of DEI initiatives. The importance of DEI has been shown to be key to providing the highest quality of care, fostering unique

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Evaluation of the strength of the novel suture technique by comparison with a 2-interrupted suture technique.

SAMPLE

40 equine larynges.

PROCEDURES

40 larynges were used; 16 laryngoplasties were performed using the currently accepted 2-suture technique and 16 using the novel suture technique. These specimens were subjected to a single cycle to failure. Eight specimens were used to compare the rima glottidis area achieved with 2 different techniques.

RESULTS

The mean force to failure, as well as the rima glottidis area of both constructs, were not significantly different. The cricoid width did not have a significant effect on the force to failure.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our results suggest that both constructs are equally strong and can achieve a similar cross-sectional area of the rima glottidis. Laryngoplasty (“tie-back”) is currently the treatment of choice for horses with exercise intolerance due to recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. Failure to maintain the expected degree of arytenoid abduction post-surgery occurs in some horses. We believe this novel 2-loop pulley load-sharing suture technique can help achieve and, more importantly, maintain the desired degree of abduction during surgery.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To perform a pilot study with the intent of assessing the feasibility of a modified subchondroplasty (mSCP) technique in a validated preclinical equine model of full-thickness articular cartilage loss and evaluate the short-term patient response to the injected materials.

ANIMALS

3 adult horses.

PROCEDURES

Two 15-mm-diameter full-thickness cartilage defects were created on the medial trochlear ridge of each femur. Defects were treated with microfracture and then filled by 1 of 4 techniques: (1) autologous fibrin graft (FG) via subchondral injection of fibrin glue (FG), (2) autologous fibrin graft via direct injection of FG, (3) subchondral injection of a calcium phosphate bone substitute material (BSM) with direct injection of FG, and (4) untreated control. Horses were euthanized after 2 weeks. Patient response was evaluated via serial lameness examination, radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, gross evaluation, microcomputed tomography, and histopathology.

RESULTS

All treatments were successfully administered. The injected material perfused through the underlying bone into the respective defects without adversely affecting the surrounding bone and articular cartilage. Increased new bone formation was seen at the margins of the trabecular spaces containing BSM. There was no treatment effect on the amount or composition of tissue within defects.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The mSCP technique was a simple, well-tolerated technique in this equine articular cartilage defect model without significant adverse effects to host tissues after 2 weeks. Larger studies with long-term follow-ups are warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine if computed tomographic lymphangiography (CTL) after ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of intrahepatic iopamidol (Isovue 370) in healthy cats would safely and effectively lead to opacification of the hepatic lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and thoracic ducts (TDs).

STUDY DESIGN

A prospective pilot study design with randomization of the sides of the liver injected.

SAMPLE POPULATION

6 purpose-bred cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats were anesthetized and based on random assignment, and the left or right liver was injected with iodinated contrast material. CTL images were taken at 5, 10, and 15 minutes postinjection to determine the quality of opacification of the cisterna chyli and TDs.

RESULTS

Eleven hepatic injections from 6 cats were available for review. One CT file was corrupted and unusable. Seven out of 11 hepatic contrast injections yielded a diagnostic study. Five out of 11 were graded as excellent, 0/11 were graded as good, and 2/11 were graded as fair. Opacification of the cisterna chyli and TDs was absent in 4/11 studies. Three out of 6 cats had mild to moderate increases in hepatocellular enzymes when assayed 3 months postprocedure. The hepatic lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and TDs were opacified in all studies deemed diagnostic.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Intrahepatic contrast injection offers a novel portal for thoracic duct lymphangiography that documents the hepatic contribution to the mesenteric lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and thoracic duct. The procedure may be helpful in the preoperative diagnostic evaluation of cats with chylothorax.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (LRLn) performed under standing sedation and evaluate the effect of LRLn on upper respiratory tract function using a high-speed treadmill test (HST). We hypothesized that (1) unilateral LRLn could be performed in standing horses, resulting in ipsilateral arytenoid cartilage collapse (ACC); and (2) HST after LRLn would be associated with alterations in upper respiratory function consistent with dynamic ACC.

ANIMALS

6 Thoroughbred horses.

METHODS

The horses were trained and underwent a baseline HST up to 14 m/s at 5% incline until fatigue. Evaluation included; airflow, pharyngeal and tracheal pressures, and dynamic upper respiratory tract endoscopy. Trans-laryngeal impedance (TLI) and left-to-right quotient angle ratio (LRQ) were calculated after testing. The following day, standing LRLn was performed in the mid-cervical region. A HST was repeated within 4 days after surgery.

RESULTS

Standing LRLn was performed without complication resulting in Havemayer grade 4 ACC at rest (complete paralysis) and Rakestraw grade C or D ACC (collapse up to or beyond rima glottis midline) during exercise. Increasing treadmill speed from 11 to 14 m/s increased TLI (P < .001) and reduced LRQ (P < .001). Neurectomy resulted in an increase in TLI (P = .021) and a reduction in LRQ (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Standing LRLn induces laryngeal hemiplegia that can be evaluated using a HST closely after neurectomy. Standing LRLn may be useful for future prospective evaluations of surgical interventions for laryngeal hemiplegia.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

This article describes the core competencies recommended for inclusion in the veterinary curriculum for all veterinary graduates based on the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges Competency-Based Veterinary Education document. General practice companion animal veterinarians are frequently presented with patients having dental, oral, or maxillofacial pathology, and veterinary graduates will be relied upon for recommendations for the maintenance of oral health, including the prevention of periodontal disease, identification of endodontic disease, and knowledge of developmental defects. These recommendations should be made for all veterinary patients starting at a young age. These core competencies can apply to many companion species, but mainly are focused on the dog and cat.

Because periodontal disease is the most common abnormality observed in dogs and cats, the first key step is taking a few seconds during examination of every patient of any age presented for any reason to examine the oral cavity. Although dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is often diagnosed after imaging and evaluation under anesthesia, the first step is observation of dentition and gingivae during the conscious exam to assess periodontal health status. The physical exam of the oral cavity may reveal oral behavior (eg, observation of uncomplicated crown fractures due to chewing on hard objects), which will permit recommendations for enhanced prevention by daily oral hygiene or professional treatment.

There are now many involved dental and surgical treatments available, some of which require specialist-level instrumentation and expertise. General practitioners should be able to competently perform the following immediately upon graduation from veterinary school:

  • For patients for whom the owner’s reason for the veterinary visit is not dental, oral, or maxillofacial disease, obtain a brief (1 or 2 questions) history of the oral health of the patient.

  • On lifting the lip of every patient, recognize presence or absence of accumulated dental plaque or calculus on the crowns of the teeth, presence or absence of gingival inflammation or ulceration, and presence or absence of other dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology.

  • On anesthetized patients that have dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology for which professional treatment is indicated, be able to obtain and interpret appropriately positioned and exposed dental radiographs.

  • When the presence of dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is recognized, determine whether each tooth present in the mouth does or does not require professional treatment beyond dental subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing.

  • List the indications for tooth extraction, know indications for potential oral/dental treatments beyond subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing or extraction, and determine whether the professional treatment that may be indicated, such as root canal treatment or mass resection of oral tissues, requires referral for specialist-level expertise and instrumentation.

  • Complete a thorough periodontal evaluation and therapy with periodontal probing, including professional subgingival and supragingival ultrasonic scaling with polishing under anesthesia.

  • Demonstrate the ability to extract teeth indicated for extraction, using gentle and appropriate techniques that will risk minimal injury to the jaws and oral soft tissues and reduce postoperative patient pain.

  • Provide appropriate postoperative care, including recognition of when postoperative analgesia and possibly antibiotic administration are indicated.

Open access

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

opportunities for promotion, salary, and workplace dynamics and how these perceptions may influence outcomes. 10 To our knowledge, no similar studies have been conducted in the field of veterinary surgery. In 2015, 63% of the approximately 1,850 ACVS

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A career in veterinary surgery can be demanding. Although the potential exists for substantial financial compensation, results of a recent survey of ACVS diplomates indicate that surgeons generally work more (in some situations, substantially more

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association