Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 81 items for :

  • "spillover" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

identified as a spillover into a nonhuman mammal is shaded dark blue. The spillover host is shown as S (swine), D (dog), P (pinniped), or C (cetecean). A subtype that became endemic within the spillover mammalian host is marked (asterisk). HPAI = High

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

produced a significant expansion of both the geography and species in which the virus has been recovered, including spillover into an expanding array of mammalian hosts in different environments. 2 – 6 Since its emergence in the late 1990s, 7 the

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with these animals. 3 Northeastern and mid-Atlantic states have reported the most rabies cases in rodents and lagomorphs as a result of spillover infections from the enzootic raccoon rabies virus variant circulating in this area. 4,5 Among rodents

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

geographically definable regions where virus transmission is primarily between members of the same species. Spillover infection from these species to other animals occurs but rarely initiates sustained transmission in other species. Once established, enzootic

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

definable regions where virus transmission is primarily between members of the same species. Spillover infection from these species to other animals occurs, but rarely initiates sustained transmission in other species. Once established, enzootic virus

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine norepinephrine (NE) kinetics in dogs with experimentally induced renal vascular hypertension.

Animals—4 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—The study comprised a control and hypertensive period. The hypertensive period followed induction of renal vascular hypertension achieved by surgical placement of clips on both renal arteries to reduce diameter by approximately 80%. Arterial blood pressure, renal clearance, and NE kinetics were measured during each period while dogs were receiving a low-sodium diet. Measurements of NE kinetics and renal clearance during the hypertensive period were made 5 days after induction of hypertension.

Results—Five days after induction of hypertension, arterial blood pressure increased by 15 to 20 mm Hg. Mean (± SEM) plasma NE concentration and NE spillover rate increased significantly from 151.5 ± 14.1 pg/ml and 8.03 ± 0.62 ng/kg/min, respectively, during the control period to 631.4 ± 30.5 pg/ml and 54.0 ± 5.2 ng/kg/min, respectively, during the hypertensive period. Norepinephrine clearance rate also increased (54.0 ± 2.4 vs 86.0 ± 9.3 ml/kg/min). Positive associations between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and NE concentration and spillover rate were detected. However, MAP and NE clearance rate were not associated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased blood pressure during the hypertensive period was likely attributable to increased NE spillover rate, which resulted in a significant increase in plasma NE concentration. Analysis of these results suggests that central sympathetic outflow was increased and may be responsible for the pathogenesis of high blood pressure during the acute phase of renal vascular hypertension in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 1534–1541)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the prevalence and seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 in companion and exotic animals in a veterinary healthcare system.

SAMPLE

A total of 341 animals were sampled by a combination of oral and nasal swabs. Serum from whole blood was collected from a subset of animals (86 canines, 25 felines, and 6 exotic animals).

METHODS

After informed owner consent, convenience samples from client-owned animals and the pets of students and staff members associated with Colorado State University’s Veterinary Health System were collected between May 2021 and September 2022. Study samples were collected by trained veterinarians, Veterinary Health System staff, and veterinary students.

RESULTS

SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 1.6% (95% CI, 0.5% to 4.6%) of domestic canines and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 6.1%) of domestic felines. No RNA was detected in any of the exotic animal species tested (n = 66). Plaque reduction neutralization tests indicated that 12.8% (95% CI, 7.3% to 21.5%) of canines and 12.0% (95% CI, 4.2% to 30.0%) of felines had neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides insight regarding SARS-CoV-2 spillover in domestic companion and exotic animals and contributes to our understanding of transmission risk in the veterinary setting.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The epizootic of rabies in raccoons entered Maryland in 1981 and systematically moved through the state affecting raccoons in all counties except those of the lower Eastern Shore. A precoded surveillance form was provided to all county and city health departments and data were requested for each animal head submitted for testing for the year 1985. The disease persisted and, in 1987, all counties previously reporting rabies in raccoons also had documented cases in other species. The incidence of rabies in raccoons increased in late winter and peaked in March. Most human exposures occurred during daylight hours and in private yards. Agricultural areas were similarly affected by rabid animals. Analysis of vaccination status of animals exposed to rabid animals gave estimations of statewide vaccination rates for dogs (70%) and cats (28%). The danger of rabies in cats was emphasized by the large number of animals exposed by each rabid cat. The spillover of rabies in raccoons to other species persisted in all jurisdiction through 1992, with periodic upsurges of disease at 3- to 4-year intervals as the raccoon population is replenished. Rabies was not diagnosed in any human beings.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author:

similar outbreaks in South American populations in 2023, and further work on the disease ecology of HPAI is helping to evaluate critical interfaces and spillover with other mammalian hosts. A global and cooperative perspective is vital in researching

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Twenty-four horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Horses were anesthetized, subjected to a ventral midline celiotomy, and the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Group-1 horses served as sham-operated controls. Group-2 horses were subjected to 6 hours of low-flow colonic arterial ischemia, and group-3 horses were subjected to 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. Baseline (bl) samples were collected, then low-flow ischemia was induced by reducing ventral colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of bl. All horses were monitored for 6 hours after bl data were collected. blood samples were collected from the colonic vein and main pulmonary artery (systemic venous [sv]) for measurement of plasma endotoxin, 6-keto prostaglandin F (6-kPG), thromboxane B2 (txb 2), and prostaglandin E2 (pge 2) concentrations. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 activities were measured in colonic venous (cv) serum samples. Data were analyzed, using two-way anova, and post-hoc comparisons were made, using Dunnett's and Tu- key's tests. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Endotoxin was not detected in CV or sv plasma at any time. There was no detectable tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-6 activity in CV samples at any time. There were no differences at bl among groups for CV or sv 6-kPG, pge 2, or txb 2 concentrations, nor were there any changes across time in group-1 horses. Colonic venous 6-kPG concentration increased during ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3; CV 6-kPG concentration peaked at 3 hours in group-3 horses, then decreased during reperfusion, but remained increased through 6 hours in group-2 horses. Systemic venous 6-kPG concentration increased during reperfusion in group-3 horses, but there were no changes in group- 2 horses. Colonic venous pge 2 concentration increased during ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3, and remained increased for the first hour of reperfusion in group-3 horses and for the 6-hour duration of ischemia in group-2 horses. There were no temporal alterations in sv pge 2 concentration. There was no difference in CV or sv ixb2 concentration among or within groups across time; however, there was a trend (P = 0.075) toward greater CV txb 2 concentration at 3.25 hours, compared with bl, in group-3 horses. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly lower in sv, compared with CV plasma. Prostaglandin E2 and 6-kPG concentrations were approximately 3 to 8 and 5 to 10 times greater, respectively, in CV than in sv plasma. The increased concentrations of 6-kPG and pge 2 in CV plasma were likely attributable to their accumulation secondary to colonic ischemia. The increased values of these vasodilator eicosanoids may have a role in the reactive hyperemia observed during reperfusion. The increased 6-kPG concentration in sv plasma may represent spillover from the colonic vasculature, but more likely reflects systemic production.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research