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Introduction Fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, usually caused by Aspergillus spp, are frequently seen in psittacine patients, with certain species, such as African grey parrots, being more commonly affected. 1 Aspergillosis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

restraint. The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and JSTOR databases were used to search for publications related to the topic using the words: parrot, psittacine, isoflurane, hematological effects, and CBC. No experimental studies on isoflurane

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ideally have access to published information and be familiar with the species’ behavioral response to stress to avoid confounding behavioral alterations. Psittacine birds are common companion animals, and cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) are the most

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Feather-destructive behavior (feather picking) is a common and often severe problem of captive psittacine birds. Many potential etiologies have been explored, including, but not limited to, behavioral derangements, internal and external parasitism

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-11 Neuropathic gastric dilatation, presumed to have a viral etiology, causes progressive loss of muscle tone and, inevitably, fatal proventricular dysfunction. It is the most commonly reported condition affecting the proventriculus in psittacines, but the true

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

It is assumed that Staphylococcus spp are part of the normal microflora of psittacines, 1,2 and thus it has been suggested that cultures of samples collected from the skin of parrots with results that are positive for staphylococci be

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

species of birds, and numerous reports 7–15 exist. Atherosclerosis has been reported as the most common pathological change observed in blood vessels of captive psittacine birds. 16 Atherosclerosis in captive psittacine birds is a postmortem finding at

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the pathogenesis and treatment of atherosclerosis. Among birds, psittacines seem particularly prone to developing spontaneous lesions principally in the large arteries at the heart base. 4–7 However, scientific investigations are scarce and certainly

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine reference values for size of the radiographic cardiac silhouette in healthy adult medium-sized psittacines.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—46 African grey parrots (Psittacus erythacus), 7 Senegal parrots (Poicephalus senegalis), and 6 orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

Procedure—Birds were anesthetized, and ventrodorsal radiographic projections were obtained. Maximum width of the cardiac silhouette, width of the thorax at the level of the maximum width of the cardiac silhouette, and width of the coracoid were measured on the radiographs. Sternum length was directly measured on individual birds. Results of physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal in all birds.

Results—Mean cardiac silhouette width-to-sternum length ratio was 38%, mean cardiac silhouette widthto- thorax width ratio was 55%, and mean cardiac silhouette width-to-coracoid width ratio was 600%. Width of the cardiac silhouette was strongly correlated with length of the sternum, width of the coracoid, and width of the thorax. No significant differences between species were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in healthy adult medium-sized psittacines, the cardiac silhouette on a ventrodorsal radiographic projection should be 35 to 41% of the length of the sternum, 51 to 61% of the width of the thorax, and 545 to 672% of the width of the coracoid. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:76–79)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

psittacines. Biuret and refractometric methods have been discussed in detail elsewhere. 5,6 In most mammals, plasma or serum albumin concentrations can be accurately and precisely assayed with techniques that involve binding of BCG or bromcresol purple dye

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research