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Data are shown as median (range) or number (percentage). Results within a row with different superscript letters are significantly different from one another. CHF = Congestive heart failure. ACE = Angiotensin converting enzyme. FETCH = Functional

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, indicating a large left-to-right shunt. 3 In addition, given the radiographic findings, left-sided congestive heart failure was suspected; however, pneumonia had not yet been ruled out. Amoxicillin–clavulanate potassium (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

H ypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common cardiac disease in cats. 1 It is reported in 15% of cats and up to 29% of older cats. 2 , 3 HCM can progress to congestive heart failure (CHF) and cause clinical manifestations such as

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

fragment has also been identified. 13 In mammals, respiratory distress develops secondary to a myriad of causes and congestive heart failure and primary pulmonary disease are among the most common etiologies. However, distinguishing between these 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

). Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 5 cats (4 males and 1 female [all mixed-breed cats]), and HCM was diagnosed in the remaining 22 cats (17 males and 5 females [18 mixed-breed cats and 4 purebred cats]). Congestive heart failure manifested

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

disease. In humans with acquired MS, intervention via percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty is the treatment of choice. 8 Congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation, which are concurrent in up to 20% 10 and 40% 9 of patients, respectively

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

CHF Congestive heart failure CI Confidence interval MMVD Myxomatous mitral valve disease Footnotes a. CPI Inflation Calculator, Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Available at: www

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors and

regurgitation progresses, there is structural and functional remodeling of the heart, which leads to volume overload and ultimately to CHF. Congestive heart failure is a devastating clinical syndrome characterized by severe cardiomegaly and clinical signs such

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

bleeding in humans and other animals with cardiac disease may be warranted. ABBREVIATIONS aPTT Activated partial thromboplastin time CHF Congestive heart failure CI Confidence interval CKCS Cavalier King Charles Spaniel DCM Dilated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify clinical signs, underlying cardiac conditions, echocardiographic findings, and prognosis for horses with congestive heart failure.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 horses.

Procedure—Signalment; history; clinical signs; clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and radiographic findings; treatment; and outcome were determined by reviewing medical records.

Results—All 14 horses were examined because of a heart murmur; tachycardia was identified in all 14. Twelve horses had echocardiographic evidence of enlargement of 1 or more chambers of the heart. Other common clinical findings included jugular distention or pulsation, crackles, cough, tachypnea, and ventral edema. Nine horses had signs consistent with heart failure for > 6 days. Underlying causes for heart failure included congenital defects, traumatic vascular rupture, pericarditis, pulmonary hypertension secondary to heaves, and valvular dysplasia. Seven horses were euthanatized after diagnosis of heart failure; 5 were discharged but were euthanatized or died of complications of heart disease within 1 year after discharge. The remaining 2 horses were discharged but lost to follow-up.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that congestive heart failure is rare in horses. A loud heart murmur accompanied by either jugular distention or pulsation, tachycardia, respiratory abnormalities (crackles, cough, tachypnea), and ventral edema were the most common clinical signs. Echocardiography was useful in determining the underlying cause in affected horses. The long-term prognosis for horses with congestive heart failure was grave. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1512–1515)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association