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, Fu X . Potential pre-activation strategies for improving therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells: current status and future prospects . Stem Cell Res Ther . 2022 ; 13 ( 1 ): 146 . doi: 10.1186/s13287-022-02822-2 14. Noronha NDC

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

performed on recalcified citrated whole blood with an activator such as tissue factor or kaolin added 30 to 90 minutes after blood collection to assist coagulation, making this technique practical for use in veterinary clinical settings. In dogs, reference

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,4 Platelets perform these diverse functions through a series of activation responses characterized by shape change, adhesion, aggregation, secretion, membrane lipid remodeling, and microvesiculation. Numerous soluble and cell membrane–bound agonists interact

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Urokinase is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease and an endogenous extrinsic plasminogen activator that is important in conversion of the circulating proenzyme plasminogen into the active serine protease plasmin. 1 Urokinase is a single

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hemostasis have 3 overlapping phases called initiation, amplification, and propagation. Once clot formation is initiated via tissue factors, subsequent thrombin formation activates several clotting factors, including V, VIII, and XI, and stimulates platelets

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

phosphatidylserine and exposure of platelet receptors for factors VIIIa and Va. 8 Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid with a negative charge that can be found primarily on the inner platelet membrane during a resting state. With platelet activation, an ATP

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

factor 6,11,12,15,16,18 or contact activators 11,18 and simple recalcification of citrated blood. 9,10,13,14,16 Recalcification in the absence of a trigger for coagulation allows for thrombin formation as a downstream effect of activation of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Platelet activation has been reported for a variety of conditions in dogs, such as IMHA, nephrotic syndrome, parvoviral enteritis, heartworm disease, lymphosarcoma and other malignancies, and sepsis. 1–8 In humans, excessive platelet activation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-selectin expression on activated platelets could facilitate direct platelet adhesion to endothelial cells (bound platelets form the physical foundation of the thrombus) or could promote leukocyte recruitment and activation via binding to PSGL-1, which is expressed on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Chicken macrophages are the most potent antigen-presenting cells capable of resistance to exogenous pathogenic microorganisms. 1–6 Macrophages differentiate via classic or alternative pathways into 2 functional types: M1 or M2. 7 Activated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research