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  • Author or Editor: Zhurui Shao x
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To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways affected in dogs with struvite and calcium oxalate urolithiasis compared to healthy dogs. To explore the candidate urinary biomarkers to distinguish dogs with struvite and calcium oxalate urolithiasis.


13 dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis, 7 dogs with struvite urolithiasis, and 13 healthy dogs were recruited between September 2021 and January 2023.


Metabolomic profiles were analyzed from urine samples using UPLC-MS MS. According to the variable importance in the projection (> 1) and correlation coefficient (P < .05) obtained by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, the differential metabolites were screened. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database was used to identify the metabolic pathways involved.


Compared to healthy dogs, those with calcium oxalate urolithiasis exhibited distinct metabolites primarily associated with phenylalanine metabolism, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide metabolic pathways. Conversely, dogs with struvite urolithiasis demonstrated variations in metabolites mainly linked to tryptophan metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolic pathways. Between calcium oxalate and struvite groups, pyocyanin, glycylprolylarginine, traumatin, cysteinyl-leucine, and 8-hydroxydodecylcarnitine are candidate urinary biomarkers.


Our findings provide an in-depth analysis of metabolic perturbations associated with calcium oxalate and struvite urolithiasis in dogs. We also identified candidate urinary biomarkers distinguishing between dogs with calcium oxalate and struvite urolithiasis, which can be subsequently validated to assist in stone diagnosis and guide treatment choices.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research