The Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (also known as the Food Animal Residue Avoidance and Depletion Program; FARAD) frequently receives requests for withdrawal interval (WDI) recommendations following inadvertent exposure of food animals to various environmental contaminants and pesticides such as rodenticides (Table 1). Rodenticide exposure in food animals typically occurs as a result of widespread use on farms for rodent control, contamination of waterways, or malicious intent. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the regulatory body that oversees rodenticides in the US, with 11 rodenticide chemicals currently carrying numerous active commercially registered products. The principal
Inadvertent or intentional administration of pesticides to food animals such as egg-laying hens (layers) and broilers often leads veterinarians to contact FARAD to inquire about withdrawal intervals. Unfortunately, US law permitting ELDU does not include products registered by the EPA; thus, ELDU use of pesticides puts FARAD in a precarious situation. Fipronil, a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole pesticide, is used to prevent insects such as fleas and ticks from plaguing cats and dogs as well as repelling a variety of insects from crops and homes. Fipronil is not approved for use in any food animal species in the United States or any
From a food safety point of view, any animal that has the potential to be consumed by humans is considered a food-producing animal; therefore, the regulations pertaining to ELDU in food-producing animals should be followed. This applies to wildlife species that may be free ranging or captive raised and consumed by humans, such as cervids, game birds, and marine mammals as well as species treated in wildlife rescue and rehabilitation centers, because those animals have the potential to be anesthetized, treated for injuries or illnesses, and released back into their native habitats following anesthesia or drug administration.
In the present FARAD Digest, common medications used to treat small ruminants in the United States and FARAD-recommended WDIs following ELDU in small ruminants will be reviewed. For this digest, we use the term small ruminants to refer only to sheep and goats. In the United States, sheep and goats are considered minor species by the FDA and are therefore exempt from many of the rules used to regulate drug use in the major species (horses, cats, dogs, cattle, swine, turkeys, and chickens). From 2007 to 2012, the overall number of sheep and goats in production in the United States
Extralabel drug use (ELDU) is defined as the use of an FDA-approved medication in a manner that differs from what is provided on the label of the medication.1 Administration of the medication to a different species or at a different dose, volume, route, duration, indication, or frequency than indicated on the label is considered ELDU. Extralabel drug use also requires an extended withdrawal period to avoid violative residues, and practitioners can get advice on withdrawal intervals (WDIs) following ELDU from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance and Depletion Program (FARAD). Penicillin is one of the most commonly used
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) face a number of health and survival challenges owing to infectious diseases. Given that honey bee colonies are comprised of a high density of closely related individuals living in close proximity, they are particularly vulnerable to viral and microbial infections. Hives are maintained at a constant temperature of 35 °C, which is an ideal temperature for pathogen proliferation and mold growth. Furthermore, pests and predators are attracted to hives because the colony represents a rich source of year-round carbohydrates (honey) and proteins (pollen, bees, and brood). People have long recognized and appreciated honey