To investigate the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) on equine intrabursal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and navicular bone fibrocartilage (NBF) cells in vitro.
Third passage DDFT and NBF cells from 5 healthy donor horses ages 11–17 years euthanized for reasons unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions.
Aggregate cultures were incubated with culture medium alone (control), 10 ng/mL IL-1β, 10 ng/mL IL-1β + 0.05 mg/mL MPA, or 10 ng/mL IL-1β + 0.5 mg/mL MPA for 24 hours. Extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expressions were assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). Culture media matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -3 and -13 concentrations were quantified via ELISA. Total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in the cell pellets and culture media was also assessed.
IL-1β and IL-1β combined with MPA significantly downregulated ECM gene expression to a greater extent in NBF cells compared with DDFT cells. IL-1β and IL-1β combined with MPA significantly upregulated MMP-3 culture media concentrations in DDFT cells only, and MMP-13 culture media concentrations to a greater extent in NBF cells compared with DDFT cells.
NBF cells were more susceptible to IL-1β and MPA-mediated ECM gene expression downregulation in vitro. These results serve as a first step for future work to determine intrabursal corticosteroid regimens that limits or resolve the inflammation as well as take into consideration NBF cell biosynthesis in horses with navicular disease, for which currently no information exists.
To investigate the chondroprotective effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), ampicillin-sulbactam (AmpS), or PRP combined with AmpS (PRP+AmpS) in an in vitro chondrocyte explant model of bovine Staphylococcus aureus–induced septic arthritis.
Autologous PRP and cartilage explants obtained from 6 healthy, adult, nonlactating Jersey-crossbred cows.
Autologous PRP was prepared prior to euthanasia using an optimized double centrifugation protocol. Cartilage explants collected from grossly normal stifle joints were incubated in synovial fluid (SF) alone, S aureus–inoculated SF (SA), or SA supplemented with PRP (25% culture medium volume), AmpS (2 mg/mL), or both PRP (25% culture medium volume) and AmpS (2 mg/mL; PRP+AmpS) for 24 hours. The metabolic activity, percentage of dead cells, and glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage explants were measured with a resazurin-based assay, live-dead cell staining, and dimethylmethylene blue assay, respectively. Treatment effects were assessed relative to the findings for cartilage explants incubated in SF alone.
Application of PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments significantly reduced S aureus–induced chondrocyte death (ie, increased metabolic activity and cell viability staining) in cartilage explants, compared with untreated controls. There were no significant differences in chondrocyte death among explants treated with PRP, AmpS, or PRP+AmpS.
In this in vitro explant model of S aureus–induced septic arthritis, PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments mitigated chondrocyte death. Additional work to confirm the efficacy of PRP with bacteria commonly associated with clinical septic arthritis in cattle as well as in vivo evaluation is warranted.