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Objective—To determine whether high-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography is useful for assessment of skin thickness in Shar-Peis.

Animals—10 healthy Shar-Peis and 10 healthy Beagles used as controls.

Procedures—Ultrasonographic examination of the skin was performed on 4 cutaneous sites by use of a 13-MHz linear-array transducer, and the mean of 3 measurements was calculated. Ultrasonography results were compared with histologic findings of skin specimens stained with H&E, Alcian blue at a pH of 2.5, and Masson trichrome stains, with histometric measurements of skin thickness made by use of a microscope, and with measurements of skin thickness made by use of a plicometer. Ultrasonograpy results were also compared via age and sex of selected animals.

Results—A clear correlation was detected between ultrasonography results and results of histologic and histometric analysis in both groups. In Shar-Peis, no correlation was found between ultrasonography results and age and sex, whereas in Beagles, a weak positive correlation was found only between skin thickness in dorsal cervical and frontal (on the rostral margins of the supraorbital processes) regions and age. A positive overall correlation was found in Shar-Peis between measurements made via ultrasonography and plicometery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography was a useful tool to assess skin thickness, and in Shar-Peis, it might be considered a valid alternative to invasive methods such as histologic examination to objectively estimate the severity of hereditary cutaneous hyaluronosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases.

ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases.

RESULTS Excretory urograms of excellent diagnostic quality were achieved with both imaging modalities. For all rabbits, the nephrographic phase of the urogram appeared in the first postcontrast REU image (obtained between 34 and 40 seconds after initiation of contrast medium administration) and at a median interval of 20 seconds in CTEU images. The pyelographic phase began at a median interval of 1.63 minutes with both imaging modalities. Contrast medium was visible within the urinary bladder at a median interval of 2.20 minutes. Median interval to the point at which the nephrogram and pyelogram were no longer visible in REU images was 8 hours and 2.67 hours, respectively. The CTEU technique was better than the REU technique for evaluating renal parenchyma.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that REU and, particularly, CTEU may be valuable tools for the diagnosis of renal and urinary tract disease in rabbits; however, additional evaluation in diseased rabbits is required.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Thirty healthy male horses were allotted to 3 groups and treated blindly during 4 days. Group-1 horses received unfractioned calcium heparin (100 IU/kg of body weight, sc, q 12 h). Group-2 horses received a single dose of a low-molecular-weight heparin (50 anti-Xa IU/kg, sc) every morning, and a similar volume of saline solution every evening. Group-3 horses received the vehicle (saline solution), sc, every 12 hours. Citrated and edta-anticoagulated blood samples were collected before starting the medication (T-0) and once daily 3 hours after each morning injection (T-3, T-27, T-51, and T-75). The pcv, hemoglobin concentration, rbc and platelet counts, and clotting times (activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time) were determined, and a microscopic examination to detect hemagglutination was performed. Plasma concentration of heparin was measured by use of the antifactor Xa activity assay. Bleeding time was determined on the first and fourth days, using a double-template method.

The horses given unfractioned heparin had marked agglutination of erythrocytes after the first injection that became more pronounced as treatment progressed. Also, significant decrease in pcv, hemoglobin concentration, and rbc count was observed during treatment. Platelet count was significantly decreased after the first day, and clotting times were significantly prolonged. In contrast to the horses given unfractioned heparin, those given low-molecular-weight heparin did not have any agglutination of erythrocytes during the 4 days of treatment, and there were no significant changes in pcv, hemoglobin concentration, or rbc and platelet counts. Activated partial thromboplastin time increased slightly in the horses given low-molecular-weight heparin, although the values remained within reference range. Both groups of horses achieved adequate concentrations of heparin in plasma for prophylactic purposes, but those given low-molecular-weight heparin achieved those values after the first injection. Bleeding times were not significantly different between heparin-treated horses and horses given saline solution during treatment.

We conclude that low-molecular-weight heparin may be used more safely and conveniently in horses, because it does not affect equine erythrocytes, platelets, or clotting and bleeding times.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research