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  • Author or Editor: Yves Moens x
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Objective—To develop an epiduroscopic technique for use in standing cattle and describe the endoscopically visible anatomic structures of the epidural space in the sacrococcygeal area.

Animals—6 healthy nonlactating, nonpregnant cows (mean ± SD age, 60 ± 18.5 months; mean weight, 599.7 ± 63.87 kg) and 3 bovine cadavers.

Procedures—Cadavers were used to allow familiarization with the equipment and refinement of the technique. Following these experiences, procedures were performed in live animals. Each cow was restrained in a stock. After sedation with xylazine (0.03 mg/kg, IV), 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg) was injected epidurally in the first intercoccygeal or the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space. By use of an introducer set (guidewire and dilation trocar and shaft), a flexible endoscope (length, 75 cm; diameter, 2.3 mm) was inserted through the dilation shaft into the epidural space. To obtain an optimal view, small amounts of air were insufflated into the epidural space through the working channel of the endoscope via a syringe with special filter.

Results—Anatomic structures of the epidural space that were viewed by means of the endoscopic procedure included blood vessels, connective tissue, fat, nerves, and the spinal dura mater. No adverse events were detected during epiduroscopy, and it was tolerated well by all 6 cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In ruminants, epidural structures can be viewed via endoscopy. Such epiduroscopic procedures may be useful in anatomic studies as well as for the diagnosis of disease or therapeutic interventions in ruminants.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of a recruitment maneuver (RM) combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during total intravenous anesthesia in ponies.

Animals—6 healthy adult Shetland ponies.

Procedure—After premedication with detomidine (10 μg/kg, IV), anesthesia was induced with climazolam (0.06 mg/kg, IV) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with a constant rate infusion of detomidine (0.024 mg/kg/h), climazolam (0.036 mg/kg/h), and ketamine (2.4 mg/kg/h). The RM was preceded by an incremental PEEP titration and followed by a decremental PEEP titration, both at a constant airway pressure difference ([.Delta]P) of 20 cm H2O. The RM consisted of a stepwise increase in [.Delta]P by 25, 30, and 35 cm H2O obtained by increasing peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) to 45, 50, and 55 cm H2O, while maintaining PEEP at 20 cm H2O. Hemodynamic and pulmonary variables were analyzed at every step of the PEEP titration–RM.

Results—During the PEEP titration–RM, there was a significant increase in PaO 2 (+12%), dynamic compliance (+ 62%), and heart rate (+17%) and a decrease in shunt (-19%) and mean arterial blood pressure (-21%) was recorded. Cardiac output remained stable.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although baseline oxygenation was high, PaO 2 and dynamic compliance further increased during the RM. Despite the use of high PIP and PEEP and a high tidal volume, limited cardiovascular compromise was detected. A PEEP titration–RM may be used to improve oxygenation in anesthetized ponies. During stable hemodynamic conditions, PEEP titration–RM can be performed with acceptable adverse cardiovascular effects.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research