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  • Author or Editor: Yukihiro Fujita x
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Objective—To determine the effect of sliding and wedge osteotomies of the humerus on the joint surface contact areas in anatomically normal elbow joints of dogs.

Sample Population—Left thoracic limbs from 5 skeletally mature mixed-breed canine cadavers.

Procedure—Joint casting was performed by placement of colored polymethylmethacrylate in the elbow joint cavity followed by loading in a materials testing system at physiologic angle and load. Joint casting was performed in unaltered specimens, after 10° medial opening wedge osteotomy, and after lateral sliding osteotomy of the proximal portion of the humerus. Computer-aided analysis of photographs of proximal radial and ulnar articular surfaces after each casting procedure was performed.

Results—The lateral sliding humeral osteotomy and 10° medial opening wedge osteotomy significantly altered joint surface contact regions of the canine elbow joint. Osteotomies resulted in a reduction in the size of the radial, ulnar, and combined radioulnar contact areas. Both osteotomies also resulted in craniolateral migration of the radial contact area and craniomedial recession of the ulnar contact area. Although the reduction in ulnar contact area with these treatments is consistent with our hypotheses, the reduction in radial contact area was not anticipated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Humeral osteotomies alter joint surface contact areas of the canine elbow joint in vitro. Humeral osteotomies may decrease contact areas on the diseased region of the joint in dogs with elbow dysplasia; however, the overall decrease in joint surface contact area suggests that these procedures may induce focal increases in pressure that may cause iatrogenic cartilage damage when applied in vivo. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:506–511)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the distribution of force between the articular surfaces of the humerus and radius and between the humerus and ulna in normal canine forelimbs.

Sample population—12 cadaveric canine right forelimbs.

Procedure—Transarticular force maps were created by placing a tactile array pressure sensor into the elbow joint cavity and loading cadaveric forelimbs in a materials testing system. Mean joint forces were determined at loads of 50, 100, 150, and 200 N.

Results—All tests produced 2 distinct areas of high load that corresponded with the proximal articular surfaces of the radius and ulna. Mean forces for the radial proximal articular surface were slightly but significantly greater than for the ulna, averaging 51% to 52% of total force for all applied loads.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The proximal articular surface of the ulna contributes substantially to load transfer through the canine elbow joint. Abnormalities, which increase this load, might contribute to canine elbow joint dysplasia, specifically fragmentation of the medial coronoid process and osteochondritis dissecans of the medial aspect of the humeral condyle. In the treatment of these conditions, the normal force distribution within the canine elbow joint should be taken into consideration. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:132–135)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare activities of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and contents of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in joint fluid obtained from dogs with hip dysplasia (HD) and clinically normal dogs, evaluate correlations among these markers in joint fluid obtained from dogs with HD, and evaluate correlations between each marker and clinical and radiographic variables.

Animals—26 dogs with HD (clinical group) and 43 clinically normal Beagles (control group).

Procedure—Joint fluid was aseptically collected from the hip joints of all dogs. For each dog in the clinical group, age, duration of lameness, radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) score, and Norberg angle in each affected joint were recorded. Activities of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-3 and S-GAG contents were measured. Values were compared between groups by use of Mann-Whitney U tests, and the Spearman rank correlation test was used to evaluate correlations among markers and between each marker and clinical or radiographic variables.

Results—Values of all markers were significantly higher for the clinical group, compared with values for the control group. There was a moderate positive correlation between lameness duration and IL-6 activity and a strong negative correlation between the Norberg angle and IL-1β activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of our results indicated that there was a significant increase in markers of OA in dogs with HD. Activities of IL-1β and IL-6 in joint fluid of dogs with HD may be influenced by the severity of laxity in the hip joint and lameness duration, respectively. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2028–2033)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To investigate the effect of an excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) and change in compressive load on tensile forces experienced by the cranial cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments (CCL, MCL, and LCL, respectively) of canine stifle joints.


16 cadaveric stifle joints from 16 orthopedically normal Beagles.


Stifle joints were categorized into unchanged (mean TPA, 30.4°) and excessive (mean TPA before and after modification, 31.2° and 41.1°, respectively) TPA groups. The excessive TPA group underwent a TPA-increasing procedure (curvilinear osteotomy of the proximal aspect of the tibia) to achieve the desired TPA. A robotic system was used to apply a 30- and 60-N compressive load to specimens. The craniomedial band of the CCL, caudolateral band of the CCL, MCL, and LCL were sequentially transected; load application was repeated after each transection. Orthogonal force components were measured in situ. Forces on ligaments were calculated after repeated output force measurements as the contribution of each component was eliminated.


Increasing the compressive load increased tensile forces on the craniomedial and caudolateral bands of the CCL, but not on the MCL or LCL, in specimens of both groups. At the 60-N load, tensile force on the craniomedial band, but not other ligaments, was greater for the excessive TPA group than for the unchanged TPA group.


Results indicated that stress on the CCL may increase when the compressive load increases. The TPA-increasing procedure resulted in increased tensile force on the CCL at a 60-N compressive load without affecting forces on the MCL or LCL.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research