Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of cefquinome administered IV, IM, or PO to healthy ducks.
Animals—Thirty-six 2-month-old Muscovy ducks.
Procedures—Ducks were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 12 birds each for a single IV, IM, or PO administration at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected before and at various intervals after each administration. Cefquinome concentration was determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography at 268 nm with a UV detector, and pharmacokinetics were analyzed.
Results—The disposition of cefquinome following IV or IM administration was best described by a 2-compartment model. After IV administration, mean ± SD elimination halflife was 1.57 ± 0.06 hours, clearance value was 0.22 ± 0.02 L/kg·h, and apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 0.41 ± 0.04 L/kg. After IM administration, elimination half-life was 1.79 ± 0.13 hours, peak concentration time was 0.38 ± 0.06 hours, peak drug concentration was 9.38 ± 1.61 μg/mL, and absolute mean ± SD bioavailability was 93.28 ± 13.89%. No cefquinome was detected in plasma after PO administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cefquinome was absorbed quickly and had excellent bioavailability after IM administration, but absorption after PO administration was poor.
Orthohantaviruses (genus Orthohantavirus, family Hantaviridae of order Bunyavirales) are rodent-borne viruses causing 2 human diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which are mainly prevalent in Eurasia and the Americas, respectively. We initiated this study to investigate and analyze the Orthohantaviruses infection in rodent reservoirs and humans in the Hubei Province of China from 1984 to 2010.
The study included 10,314 mouse and 43,753 human serum samples.
In this study, we analyzed the incidence of Orthohantavirus infection in humans and observed changes in rodent reservoirs in Hubei Province.
The results indicated that although the incidence of HFRS declined from the 1990s, the human inapparent infection did not decrease dramatically. Although elements of the disease ecology have changed over the study period, Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus remain the major species and a constituent ratio of Rattus norvegicus increased. Rodent population density fluctuated between 16.65% and 2.14%, and decreased quinquennially, showing an obvious downward trend in recent years. The average orthohantaviruses-carrying rate was 6.36%, of which the lowest rate was 2.92% from 2006 to 2010. The analysis of rodent species composition showed that Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus agrarius were the dominant species over time (68.6% [1984 to 1987] and 90.4% [2000 to 2011]), while the composition and variety of other species decreased. The density of rodents was closely related to the incidence of HFRS (r = 0.910, P = .032).
Our long-term investigation demonstrated that the occurrence of HFRS is closely related to rodent demographic patterns. Therefore, rodent monitoring and rodent control measures for prevention against HFRS in Hubei are warranted.