OBJECTIVE To characterize activation and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages after in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and mouse erythrocytes.
ANIMALS Five 15-day-old chickens and 2 BALB/c mice.
PROCEDURES Macrophages were extracted from chicken bone marrow or peripheral blood and then stimulated with cytokines secreted from cell lines L929 and HD11. Stimulated chicken macrophages were further cocultured with LPS or mouse erythrocytes, and gene transcription of some distinctive cytokines was detected by use of a real-time PCR assay.
RESULTS Morphological features and phagocytic function of macrophages were characterized. Activated macrophages had an elongated shape with a large cell nucleus, and they had phagocytic function. Distinctive genes encoding the surface marker gene CD11b were identified; high quantities of CD11b were transcribed. Relative transcription of chicken genes BF and BL in mature cells cocultured with both stimuli was lower than for control cells. However, the quantity of genes encoding M1- or M2-distinctive cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β) that were transcribed differed significantly between stimulation with LPS and mouse erythrocytes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Chicken macrophages were differentially stimulated by LPS and mouse erythrocytes, which suggested that in vitro stimulation can distinctly influence the transcription and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate 3 contrast medium infusion (CMI) protocols for CT angiography (CTA) and measurement of major artery diameters in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).
ANIMALS 9 African grey parrots with no detectable cardiovascular disease.
PROCEDURES Each bird was anesthetized and underwent placement of an IV catheter in the left basilic vein and 16-slice CTA scanning (started at peak aortic enhancement) with each of 3 CMI protocols at ≥ 1-month intervals. Protocol 1 involved catheter flushing with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and IV infusion of iopamidol (2 mL) followed by saline solution (0.2 mL; total infused volume, 5 mL). Protocol 2 involved IV infusion of iopamidol (2 mL) followed by saline solution (0.4 mL; total infused volume, 2.4 mL). Protocol 3 involved catheter flushing with saline solution and IV administration of iopamidol (2 mL; total infused volume, 4.8 mL). The diameters of 6 major arteries were measured by 2 observers, and intra- and interobserver agreement, time-enhancement variables, and patient factors affecting contrast medium enhancement were assessed.
RESULTS Among the 3 CMI protocols, CTA-derived arterial diameters differed significantly. Measurements obtained with protocol 2 were significantly larger than those obtained with the other protocols. Uniformity of the time-enhancement variables differed among CMI protocols. Patient factors had nonsignificant effects on contrast medium enhancement.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Of the CMI protocols assessed, a 2-phase CMI protocol with a post-CMI saline solution flush was the most reliable for CTA-derived measurements of the major thoracic and abdominal arteries in African grey parrots. However, further technique modification is needed.
OBJECTIVE To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2016 in the United States.
DESIGN Observational study based on passive surveillance data.
ANIMALS All animals submitted for rabies testing in the United States during 2016.
PROCEDURES State and territorial public health programs provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2016. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases.
RESULTS During 2016, 50 states and Puerto Rico reported 4,910 rabid animals to the CDC, representing a 10.9% decrease from the 5,508 rabid animals reported in 2015. Of the 4,910 cases of animal rabies, 4,487 (91.4%) involved wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,646 (33.5%) bats, 1,403 (28.6%) raccoons, 1,031 (21.0%) skunks, 313 (6.4%) foxes, 257 (5.2%) cats, 70 (1.4%) cattle, and 58 (1.2%) dogs. There was a 4.6% decrease in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2016, compared with the number submitted in 2015. No human rabies deaths were reported in 2016.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma suis infection in swine, swine-farm workers, and swine veterinarians in Shanghai, China.
Sample Population—172 swine and 65 workers and veterinarians from 19 commercial swine farms.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from all study subjects. Blood samples were examined for the presence of M suis by means of compound and scanning electron microscopy. A species-specific PCR assay was developed for detection of M suis DNA extracted from blood samples. Relationships between infection status of swine and sex, age, geographic location, and clinical signs of disease were evaluated by use of a C2 test. The phylogenetic relationship between partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences from swine and human isolates of M suis was determined.
Results—86% (148/172) of swine and 49% (32/65) of humans had positive PCR assay results for M suis infection. Swine infection status was not associated with any variable, with the exception of pyrexia and subcutaneous bleeding. The partial 16S rRNA sequences from human and swine isolates of M suis were 98% homologous and in the same phylogenetic cluster as a previously identified swine isolate of M suis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A large proportion of swine and humans in close contact with those swine were infected with M suis in Shanghai, China. The close phylogenetic relationship between swine and human isolates of M suis suggested possible interspecies transmission; however, additional research is required to better assess that possibility.
OBJECTIVE To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2017 in the United States.
DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of passive surveillance data.
ANIMALS All animals submitted for laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the United States during 2017.
PROCEDURES State and territorial public health departments provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2017. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases.
RESULTS During 2017, 52 jurisdictions reported 4,454 rabid animals to the CDC, representing a 9.3% decrease from the 4,910 rabid animals reported in 2016. Of the 4,454 cases of animal rabies, 4,055 (91.0%) involved wildlife species. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,433 (32.2%) bats, 1,275 (28.6%) raccoons, 939 (21.1%) skunks, 314 (7.0%) foxes, 276 (6.2%) cats, 62 (1.4%) dogs, and 36 (0.8%) cattle. There was a 0.4% increase in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2017, compared with the number submitted in 2016. Two human rabies deaths were reported in 2017, compared with none in 2016.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The overall number of reported cases of animal rabies has decreased over time. Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations.