Objective—To obtain quantitative variables of the abdominal aorta and both kidneys on the basis of time-attenuation curves (TACs) and to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for each kidney and the global GFR in clinically normal cats by use of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and Patlak analysis.
Animals—9 healthy cats.
Procedures—All the cats were anesthetized with propofol. Anesthesia was maintained by administration of isoflurane, and CT examination was performed in the anesthetized cats. The TACs and renal volume were measured by use of the baseline precontrast and single-slice dynamic scans. The CT-GFR of each kidney and the global CT-GFRs were calculated via Patlak plot analysis.
Results—CT-GFR results from 7 cats were valid. Peak aortic enhancement was detected between 9.0 and 14.0 seconds after iohexol injection, and the initial peak time of renal parenchymal enhancement was 15 to 24 seconds after iohexol injection. Mean ± SD global GFR was 2.06 ± 0.62 mL/min/kg. Mean ± SD CT-GFR of the right and left kidneys was 0.97 ± 0.32 mL/min/kg and 1.05 ± 0.31 mL/min/kg, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The CT-GFR method can be rapidly and conveniently performed in clinically normal cats. This combined structural-functional approach provided physiologic and morphological information on the kidneys of cats.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of thiopental, propofol, and etomidate on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by the use of dynamic computed tomography in dogs.
Animals—17 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg of etomidate/kg (n = 5), 6 mg of propofol/kg (7), or 15 mg of thiopental/kg (5) during induction of anesthesia; anesthesia was subsequently maintained by isoflurane evaporated in 100% oxygen. A 1 mL/kg dosage of a 300 mg/mL solution of iohexol was administered at a rate of 3 mL/s during GFR measurement. Regions of interest of the right kidney were manually drawn to exclude vessels and fatty tissues and highlight the abdominal portion of the aorta. Iohexol clearance per unit volume of the kidney was calculated by use of Patlak plot analysis.
Results—Mean ± SD weight-adjusted GFR of the right kidney after induction of anesthesia with thiopental, propofol, and etomidate was 2.04 ± 0.36 mL/min/kg, 2.06 ± 0.29 mL/min/kg, and 2.14 ± 0.43 mL/min/kg, respectively. However, no significant differences in weight-adjusted GFR were detected among the treatment groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained for the measurement of GFR in anesthetized dogs after anesthetic induction with etomidate, propofol, or thiopental and maintenance with isoflurane did not differ significantly. Therefore, etomidate, propofol, or thiopental can be used in anesthesia-induction protocols that involve the use of isoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia without adversely affecting GFR measurements obtained by the use of dynamic computed tomography in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate lateral ventricular size in clinically normal calves by use of computed tomography and to examine the relationships between ventricular height (Vh), ventricular area (VA), and ventricular volume (VV).
Animals—14 Holstein calves.
Procedures—14 calves underwent computed tomography of the head with transverse images acquired from the rostral aspect of the frontal lobe continuing caudally to the level of the foramen magnum. Hemispheric height, Vh, VA, and hemispheric area were measured on images obtained at the level of the interventricular foramen. Ventricular volume was calculated by multiplying the sum of VAs measured on each transverse image by the total slice thickness. The left Vh-to-right Vh ratio was calculated to determine the degree of ventricular asymmetry, which was categorized as normal (ie, symmetric) to minimally asymmetric, mildly asymmetric, or severely asymmetric.
Results—Mean ± SD values for Vh and the Vh-to-hemispheric height ratio were 4.96 ± 1.56 mm and 7.47%, respectively. The mean VA was 114.29 ± 47.68 mm2, and the mean VV was 2,443.50 ± 1,351.50 mm3. Normal to minimally asymmetric ventricles were identified in 13 calves, and mildly asymmetric ventricles were identified in 1 calf. Significant correlations were found between Vh and VA and between Vh and VV.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results establish reference values for ventricular size in clinically normal calves and suggest that Vh measurement may be a simple and useful technique for examining size of the cerebral ventricles in calves.
Objective—To evaluate the use of color Doppler imaging (CDI) for determining the resistive index (RI) of the medial long posterior ciliary artery (mLPCA) in clinically normal conscious dogs.
Animals—18 (10 sexually intact males, 8 sexually intact females) dogs between 1 and 5 years old.
Procedure—Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed on both eyes with dogs in a sitting position. Each eye was imaged from the region dorsal to the zygomatic arch with the transducer positioned in a horizontal plane. The mLPCA was localized, and RI was calculated from velocities obtained for 3 similar Doppler waveforms. To determine the reproducibility of CDI-derived RI, measurements were repeated twice at a 10-day interval.
Results—Mean (± SD) RI of the mLPCA was 0.68 ± 0.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.70; n = 36 eyes). Resistive index did not significantly differ between right and left eyes or male and female dogs. In addition, body weight was not correlated with RI. Repeated measurements of RI did not yield significantly different results (interclass correlation coefficient, 0.8297).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Color Doppler imaging appears to be a valid technique for determination of RI of the mLPCA in conscious dogs. This technique may be useful for investigating the pathophysiologic processes of many ocular and orbital vascular disorders in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:211–214)