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Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-ag) in bovine fetuses and newborn calves was characterized. Serum α1-ag concentration increased during fetal development and neonatal stages. Mean ± sd serum α1-ag concentration reached a peak of 1,368 ± 207 μg/ml immediately after birth, but thereafter gradually decreased to 249 ± 100 μg/ml, similar to the normal adult bovine range.

By use of isoelectric focusing of thin-layer gels, we detected 7 microheterogeneity bands ranging from pI 3.2 to 3.8 in adult bovine serum. Twelve bands ranging from pI 2.6 to 3.8 were found in 9-month fetuses and in neonates. The 5 most-acidic bands, which are absent in adult serum, ranged between pI 2.6 and 3.1 and decreased with maturation as band patterns assumed adult characteristics.

By crossed affinity electrophoresis, α1-ag of adult bovine serum was separated into 4 peaks according to its differential affinity to concanavalin A (conA). Seventy-five percent of the α1-ag concentration was represented by peak 3 (P-3) and peak 4 (P-4), which had moderate or strong binding to conA. In contrast, fetal sera contained only peak 1 (P-1), which did not have conA-binding affinity. In neonatal sera, 4 peaks were recognized, of which P-1 comprised 70% of the total α1-ag. Thereafter, with aging, percentage of P-3 and P-4 increased as band composition approached the normally expected adult pattern.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Changes in serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (α1 AG) concentration in cattle with hepatic abscesses were observed, and function of α1 ag was evaluated, particularly its influence on cellular immune response. Test cattle (n = 4) were inoculated with Fusobacterium necrophorum, control cattle (n = 2) were inoculated with inactivated bacteria, and naturally affected cattle (n = 11) were found in a slaughterhouse.

Determination of α1 ag was made by use of a single radial immunodiffusion method. The action on lymphocyte blastogenesis was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Cultured lymphocytes from healthy cattle were treated with variable concentrations of α1 ag purified from serum obtained from cattle with hepatic abscesses and suppression of blastogenesis stimulated by each of 3 mitogens was measured.

In cattle with experimentally induced abscesses, serum α1 ag concentration increased for 7 to 10 days after F necrophorum inoculation, its change being parallel to that of sialic acid. High concentration of α1 ag was found in naturally affected cattle and was highly correlated to sialic acid concentration. Suppression of lymphocyte blastogenesis in cattle with experimentally induced hepatic abscesses was highly correlated to serum α1 ag concentration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To detect localization of α1-acid glycoprotein (α1,-AG) antigens in the liver tissue of cattle by use of immunoperoxidase technique.

Sample Population

Liver specimens from 6 bovine fetuses, 2 healthy bovine neonates, 2 healthy adult cattle, 3 cattle with experimentally induced hepatic abscesses, and 2 cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL).


3 cattle (with hepatic abscesses) were inoculated with a suspension of Fusobacterium necrophorum in the ruminal vein. Serum α1-AG concentration was determined by use of the single radial immunodiffusion method. Livers from fetuses, newborn calves, and adult or sick cattle were fixed in buffered 10% formalin, dehydrated in alcohol, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained by use of the avidin-biotin complex/immunoperoxidase technique.


Sites of localization of the α1-AG antigen positive reaction (AGPR) in the liver obtained from bovine fetuses, neonates, or sick cattle were different. In fetal and newborn calves, the AGPR was detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Intensity of the reaction varied in direct proportion to α1-AG serum concentration. In adult cattle, the AGPR was particularly intense in hepatocytes adjacent to abscesses or EBL-induced tumors.


The pattern of distribution of cells with AGPR in the liver varied, depending on severity of inflammation. In the cattle with EBL, whether the AGPR was attributable to inflammation could not be clarified, although suppression of immunologic response to tumors may have been a cause of the observed reaction. This association suggests that the glycoprotein may be synthesized, mainly in hepatocytes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:725–728)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research