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  • Author or Editor: Yasushi Hara x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To verify the validity of finite element analysis (FEA) predictions obtained from a canine lumbar segment model in comparison with experimental biomechanical testing results from the same subjects.

ANIMALS

6 healthy beagle dogs were euthanized for other purposes.

METHODS

The L1–2 and L5–6 segments were harvested from euthanized animals and subjected to rotation tests and compression tests, respectively, using both ex vivo mechanical testing and FEA. For each method, we recorded the maximum torque value and angle of vertebral body rotation at rupture observed in rotation tests, as well as the maximum stress value and displacement of the vertebral body endplate at rupture measured from compression tests. We then calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficient to determine correlations between the angle of gyration and displacement at rupture determined by mechanical testing and FEA. The study started on March 26, 2021, and ended on March 18, 2023.

RESULTS

For the rotation test, correlation coefficients for the maximum torque and rotation angle of the vertebral body at rupture were r = 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. For the compression test, correlation coefficients for the maximum stress and displacement of the vertebral body endplate at rupture were r = 0.73 and 0.94, respectively. All results showed strong correlations between the FEA predictions and ex vivo mechanical test results.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These findings suggest that FEA predictions are sufficiently reliable for ex vivo mechanical test results for biomechanical studies of canine lumbar segment models.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether small intestinal ischemia and reperfusion induces bacterial translocation and proinflammatory cytokine response in either the systemic or portal circulation in dogs.

Animals—17 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was occluded for 0 (group-3 dogs), 30 (group-1 dogs), or 60 (group-2 dogs) minutes, followed by reperfusion for 180 minutes; serum lactate and endotoxin concentrations and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 activities in the systemic and portal circulation and intramucosal pH were measured at various time points.

Results—In group-2 dogs, TNF-α activity was found to be significantly increased in the portal circulation, peaking at 60 minutes of reperfusion; TNF-α activity, in the systemic circulation, gradually increased from 60 minutes of reperfusion to the end of the experiment; however, the increase was not significant. In group-1 and -2 dogs, IL-6 activities significantly and gradually increased in the systemic and portal circulation during the reperfusion phase, and the magnitude of these increases was dependent on the duration of the ischemic phase. There were no significant changes in IL-1β activity or endotoxin concentration in any dog group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the our study indicate that intestinal ischemia and reperfusion leads to significant increases of the circulating TNF-α and IL-6 activities, depending on the duration of the ischemia phase, in the absence of detectable endotoxin in the circulation. This finding suggests that intestinal ischemia and reperfusion induces a systemic proinflammatory cytokine response in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1680–1686)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether small intestinal ischemia and reperfusion affects intestinal intramucosal pH (pHi), arterial and portal venous blood gas values, and intestinal blood flow (IBF) and to investigate relationships between regional intestinal tissue oxygenation and systemic variables in dogs.

Animals—15 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—Occlusion of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 0, 30, or 60 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 180 minutes, was performed; IBF, pHi, arterial and portal venous blood gas values, arterial pressure, and heart rate were measured at various time points; and intestinal mucosal injury was histologically graded.

Results—Occlusion of the SMA induced significant decreases in pHi and IBF. After the release of the occlusion, IBF returned rapidly to baseline values, but improvement in pHi was slow. Arterial and portal venous blood gas analyses were less sensitive than tonometric measurements of pHi, and there was no correlation between results of blood gas analyses and tonometric measurements. Histologic score for intestinal mucosal injury increased significantly, depending on duration of ischemia, and there was a correlation between tonometric results and the histologic score.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that it is difficult to accurately evaluate local oxygenation disorders by monitoring at the systemic level, whereas clinically pHi is the only reliable indicator of inadequate regional intestinal tissue oxygenation in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:804–810)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether continuous infusion of a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce a condition mimicking septic shock in dogs would affect systemic and hepatosplanchnic circulation and oxygenation.

Animals—12 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs received a low dose of LPS (Escherichia coli O55:B5) by continuous IV infusion at a rate of 1 µg/kg/h for 8 hours. Systemic hemodynamics; systemic oxygenation; blood flow in the cranial mesenteric artery, common hepatic artery, and portal vein; intestinal and hepatic tissue blood flow; mesenteric oxygenation; and intramucosal PCO2 were examined before and at selected time points after onset of the LPS infusion.

Results—After onset of the LPS infusion, cardiac index increased and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance decreased, which is characteristic of the hyperdynamic state in septic patients. Hepatosplanchnic blood flow increased during the hyperdynamic state. Intestinal PCO2 was increased even when blood flows increased. During the latter half of the experimental period, MAP was maintained but hepatosplanchnic blood flows decreased and intestinal PCO2 increased further.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results suggested that hepatosplanchnic blood flow enters the hyperdynamic state during the early stages of sepsis and that intestinal tissue oxygenation is threatened even when hepatosplanchnic blood flow is increased or maintained. Hence, improvement of hepatosplanchnic circulation and intestinal tissue oxygenation is important in dogs with clinical evidence of a septic condition. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1347–1354)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of continuous low-dose infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and neutrophil accumulation in the lungs, liver, spleen, small intestine, and pancreas in dogs.

Animals—11 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs received a continuous infusion of a low dose (10 µg/kg/h, IV) of LPS ( Escherichia coli055:B5) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (20 mL/kg/h, IV) for 8 hours. Activity levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the number of WBCs in circulation were examined before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after the onset of LPS infusion. Expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA and the number of neutrophils in each tissue were examined.

Results—After the onset of LPS infusion, serum TNF-α and IL-1β activities transiently increased. Thereafter, IL-6 activity increased, and high IL-6 activity was maintained throughout the experiment. In dogs in the LPS group, expression of E-selectin mRNA increased only in the lungs, and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA increased in the lungs and liver; the number of neutrophils in the tissue increased in the lungs and liver.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA increased during sepsis, particularly in the lungs and liver, and that this increase was associated with neutrophil accumulation. Hence, inhibiting the activation of endothelial cells in the lung and liver may decrease organ damage caused by accumulated neutrophils and help regulate multiple-organ dysfunction. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1259–1266)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the relationship between runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression in canine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and intervertebral disk aging in chondrodystrophoid dogs.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles (mean age, 35.6 months) and 11 Dachshunds with herniated disks (mean age, 61 months).

Procedures—All dogs underwent MRI examination of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral column immediately before sample collection under general anesthesia. The disk center–to–CSF T2-weighted signal intensity ratio was determined for healthy Beagles. Samples of NP were obtained from nonherniated disks in healthy Beagles and from herniated disks during surgical treatment of hospitalized Dachshunds. Samples were evaluated for RUNX2 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 transcript expression via reverse transcriptase PCR assay; RUNX2 protein expression was evaluated via immunohistochemical analysis, and correlation between these variables and age of dogs was evaluated. A 3′ and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends method was used to identify the RUNX2 coding region.

Results—RUNX2 cDNA had > 97% conservation with the human cDNA sequence and approximately 95% conservation with the mouse cDNA sequence; RUNX2 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 mRNA expression and RUNX2 protein expression in NP cells were positively correlated with age. The disk center–to–CSF T2-weighted signal intensity ratio was negatively correlated with RUNX2 protein expression in the NP of healthy dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that RUNX2 mRNA and protein expression in the NP are enhanced in aging intervertebral disks in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of long-term administration of carprofen on healing of a tibial osteotomy in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy female Beagles.

Procedures—A mid-diaphyseal transverse osteotomy (stabilized with an intramedullary pin) of the right tibia was performed in each dog. The carprofen group (n = 6 dogs) received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 120 days; the control group (6) received no treatment. Bone healing and change in callus area were assessed radiographically over time. Dogs were euthanized 120 days after surgery, and tibiae were evaluated biomechanically and histologically.

Results—The osteotomy line was not evident in the control group on radiographs obtained 120 days after surgery. In contrast, the osteotomy line was still evident in the carprofen group. Callus area was significantly less in the carprofen group, compared with the area in the control group, at 20, 30, and 60 days after surgery. At 120 days after surgery, stiffness, elastic modulus, and flexural rigidity in the carprofen group were significantly lower than corresponding values in the control group. Furthermore, histologic evaluation revealed that the cartilage area within the callus in the carprofen group was significantly greater than that in the control group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-term administration of carprofen appeared to inhibit bone healing in dogs that underwent tibial osteotomy. We recommend caution for carprofen administration when treating fractures that have delays in healing associated with a reduction in osteogenesis as well as fractures associated with diseases that predispose animals to delays of osseous repair.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion on the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNAs in the jejunum, liver, and lungs of dogs.

Animals—8 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedures—In each dog, the cranial mesenteric artery was occluded for 0 (control group; n = 4) or 60 (I-R group; 4) minutes, followed by reperfusion for 480 minutes; serum TNF-α and IL-6 activities and expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNAs in jejunal, hepatic, and lung tissues were measured before and at the end of the ischemic period and at intervals during reperfusion. For each variable, values were compared between the control and I-R groups at each time point.

Results—Compared with the control group, serum IL-6 activity increased significantly after 180 minutes of reperfusion in the I-R group; also, jejunal TNF-α mRNA expression increased significantly after 60 (peak) and 180 minutes of reperfusion. In the I-R group, expressions of IL-6 mRNA in the liver and TNF-α and IL-6 mRNAs in the lungs increased significantly at 480 minutes of reperfusion, compared with the control group. Serum TNF-α activity, expression of IL-6 mRNA in the jejunum, and expression of TNF-α mRNA in the liver in the control and I-R groups did not differ.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the liver, lungs, and jejunum contributed to the production of TNF-α and IL-6 after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in dogs, suggesting that intestinal ischemia and reperfusion induce a systemic proinflammatory cytokine response in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of mitotane administration on the function and morphology of pituitary corticotrophs in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—12 clinically normal adult Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to the control group or the mitotane treatment group. In mitotane treatment group dogs, mitotane was administered for 1 month. In both groups, ACTH stimulation testing and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation testing were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland and brain was performed in mitotane treatment group dogs before and after administration of mitotane. After CRH stimulation testing and MRI, dogs were euthanatized and the pituitary gland and adrenal glands were excised for gross and histologic examination.

Results—ACTH concentrations in mitotane treatment group dogs were significantly higher than in the control group dogs following CRH stimulation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that pituitary glands were significantly larger in treatment group dogs after administration of mitotane, compared with before administration. On gross and histologic examinations, the adrenal cortex was markedly atrophied. Immunohistochemistry revealed hypertrophy of corticotrophs in pituitary glands of mitotane treatment group dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings indicate that inhibition of the adrenal cortex by continuous administration of mitotane leads to functional amplification and morphologic enhancement of corticotrophs in clinically normal dogs. In instances of corticotroph adenoma, hypertrophy of individual corticotrophs induced by mitotane may greatly facilitate enlargement of the pituitary gland and increases in ACTH secretion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of intervertebral distraction screw (IDS) fixation of the lumbosacral joint (LSJ) on the intervertebral foraminal area (IFA) and intervertebral stabilization of the LSJ and adjacent lumbar segments in dogs.

ANIMALS

7 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Dorsal laminectomy was performed at the LSJ in each dog to expose the intervertebral disk. The IDS was then inserted into the L7-S1 disk. Computed tomography was performed before and after laminectomy and after IDS insertion (intact, laminectomy, and IDS conditions, respectively) to measure the intervertebral range of motion (ROM) and intervertebral distance (ID) at L7-S1, L6-7, and L5-6 with the LSJ in a flexed and extended position. The intervertebral foramina stenosis rate was calculated from the intervertebral foramina area in entrance, middle, and exit zones. Results were compared among conditions.

RESULTS

The ROM at L7-S1 after IDS insertion was lower than that observed before and after laminectomy; no other differences were identified among conditions. With the LSJ in the flexed position, the ID at L7-S1 was larger after IDS insertion than before and after laminectomy; no other differences in ID were identified. In all evaluated zones, the stenosis rate was lower after IDS insertion than before and after laminectomy. No differences in ROM, ID, and stenosis rate were identified among conditions at L6-7 or L5-6.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that IDS fixation of the LSJ restricted lumbosacral ROM and prevented decreases in lumbosacral ID and IFA in healthy dogs. There were no changes at L6-7 and L5-6.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research