To evaluate the level of agreement (LOA) between direct and oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurements and the ability of oscillometric measurements to accurately detect hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
8 captive, adult chimpanzees.
During prescheduled annual examinations, each chimpanzee underwent general anesthesia and patient monitoring for their examination, echocardiography for a concurrent study, and measurement of direct BP with the use of tibial artery catheterization and oscillometry with the use of a cuff placed around a brachium and a cuff placed around the second digit of the contralateral forelimb for the present study. Bland-Altman plots were generated to compare results for direct and oscillometric BP measurements. Mean bias and 95% LOAs were calculated for oscillometric measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) for each cuff site. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting hypotension were also determined for each cuff site.
There were 74 paired direct and brachial oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP and 66 paired direct and digit oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP. Only brachial oscillometric measurements of MAP had adequate sensitivity (78%) and specificity (95%) to accurately detect hypotension, and this technique also had the least mean bias (0.8 mm Hg; 95% LOA, –29 to 31 mm Hg).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that brachial oscillometric measurement of MAP provided reasonable agreement with tibial arterial direct MAP measurement and performed well in diagnosing hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees.
To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM).
12 dogs (96 blood samples).
A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal.
Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.
OBJECTIVE To investigate use of the plethysmographic variability index (PVI) and perfusion index (PI) for evaluating changes in arterial blood pressure in anesthetized tigers (Panthera tigris).
ANIMALS 8 adult tigers.
PROCEDURES Each tiger was anesthetized once with a combination of ketamine, midazolam, medetomidine, and isoflurane. Anesthetic monitoring included assessment of PI, PVI, direct blood pressure measurements, anesthetic gas concentrations, esophageal temperature, and results of capnography and ECG. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was maintained for at least 20 minutes at each of the following blood pressure conditions: hypotensive (MAP = 50 ± 5 mm Hg), normotensive (MAP = 70 ± 5 mm Hg), and hypertensive (MAP = 90 ± 5 mm Hg). Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the beginning of anesthesia and at each blood pressure condition.
RESULTS Mean ± SD PI values were 1.82 ± 2.38%, 1.17 ± 0.77%, and 1.71 ± 1.51% and mean PVI values were 16.00 ± 5.07%, 10.44 ± 3.55%, and 8.17 ± 3.49% for hypotensive, normotensive, and hypertensive conditions, respectively. The PI values did not differ significantly among blood pressure conditions. The PVI value for the hypotensive condition differed significantly from values for the normotensive and hypertensive conditions. The PVI values were significantly correlated with MAP (r = −0.657). The OR of hypotension to nonhypotension for PVI values ≥ 18% was 43.6.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE PVI was a clinically applicable variable determined by use of noninvasive methods in anesthetized tigers. Values of PVI ≥ 18% may indicate hypotension.
To determine the accuracy of pet owners, veterinary technicians, house officers (interns and residents), and attending clinicians at estimating dog weights in a veterinary emergency room.
272 dogs weighing over 2 kg presenting to the emergency room between June 1 and July 29, 2022.
Pet owners, veterinary technicians, house officers, and attending clinicians recorded the dogs’ weight estimations on individual data collection cards. Pet owners were also asked to estimate their dogs’ weight during the triage period. The dogs’ actual weights were then obtained and recorded.
Pet owners were more accurate than veterinary professionals at providing weight estimates for dogs. Weight estimates were accurate to within 10% of the dogs’ actual weights for 67.9% (181/267) of pet owners. Forty-one percent (112/270) of attending clinicians, 35.3% (95/269) of house officers, and 35.4% (96/271) of veterinary technicians’ weight estimates were within 10% of the dog’s actual weight. There was no difference noted in the length of veterinary experience and ability to closely estimate the patient’s weight. Overall, veterinary professionals were more likely to closely estimate the weight of large dogs compared to small dogs.
The pet owner is most likely to provide an accurate weight for dogs and questions about the dog’s weight should be directed to the client for situations in which a weight cannot be rapidly obtained.