Objective—To estimate the relationship between therapeutic use of ceftiofur and recovery of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone from feces of dairy cattle.
Animals—3,840 mature dairy cows on 50 dairy herds in Ohio.
Procedures—Fecal samples were obtained from up to 100 mature dairy cows on each farm. Samples were screened for E coli and Salmonella spp with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone by use of selective media.
Results—E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone was recovered from 92% (46/50) of the herds and 60.9% (2,338/3,840) of cows. Salmonella spp were recovered from 44% (22/50) of the herds and 9.9% (382/3,840) of cows. No association was found between ceftiofur use and recovery of E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone at the herd level. However, recovery of E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone was more likely from cows in herds in which Salmonella spp were also recovered on the day of collection (odds ratio, 24.96; 95% confidence interval, 3.17 to 196.68) than from herds in which Salmonella spp were not recovered. Odds of recovery of E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone from an individual cow increased 62% (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 2.25) for every 454-kg increase in herd milk production.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No evidence was found that the use of ceftiofur on dairy farms increases the prevalence or dissemination of Salmonella spp or E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone.
Objective—To estimate prevalence and determine association between antimicrobia resistance and toxin gene profile of Clostridium difficile in commercial pigs at the preharvest food-safety level.
Animals—68 sows and 251 young pigs from 5 farms in North Carolina and 3 in Ohio.
Procedures—Fecal samples were collected from sows (8/farm) and matched young pigs (32/farm) at farrowing and again at the nursery and finishing stages. Clostridium difficile isolates were tested for susceptibility to 6 antimicrobials. A PCR assay was used to detect genes coding for enterotoxin A (tcdA), cytotoxin B (tcdB), and binary toxin (cdtB).
Results—C difficile prevalence in young pigs at farrowing was 73% (n = 183) with significantly higher prevalence in Ohio (87.5%) than in North Carolina (64%). Clostridium difficile was isolated from 32 (47%) sows with no significant difference between the 2 regions. A single pig had a positive test result at the nursery, and no isolate was recovered at the finishing farms. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was predominant in young pigs (91.3% of isolates) and sows (94%). The antimicrobial resistance profile ciprofloxacin-erythromycin-tetracycline was detected in 21.4% and 11.7% of isolates from young pigs and sows, respectively. Most isolates had positive results for tcdA (65%), tcdB (84%), and the binary toxin cdtB (77%) genes. Erythromycin resistance and tetracycline resistance were significantly associated with toxin gene profiles.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The common occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant C difficile and the significant association of toxigenic strains with antimicrobial resistance could contribute to high morbidity in farms with farrowing pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1189—1194)
Objective—To identify important pathogens and characterize their serologic and pathologic effects in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-infected pigs in relation to pig age and type of swine production system.
Animals—583 conventionally reared pigs.
Procedures—3- (n = 157), 9- (149), 16- (152), and 24-week-old (125) pigs from 41 different 1-, 2-, and 3-site production systems (5 pigs/age group/farm) were euthanized and necropsied. Pigs with and without PCV2 infection were identified (via PCR assay); infection with and serologic responses to other pathogens and pathologic changes in various tissues (including lungs) were assessed. Logistic regression models were constructed for effects overall and within each age group and type of production system.
Results—Compared with PCV2-negative pigs, PCV2-positive pigs were more likely to have swine influenza virus (SIV) type A and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections and sample-to-positive (S:P) ratios for SIV H1N1 from 0.50 to 0.99; also, PCV2-positive pigs had higher serum anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibody titers and more severe lung tissue damage. Infection with SIV (but lower SIV H1N1 S:P ratio) was more likely in 3-week-old PCV2-positive pigs and evidence of systemic disease was greater in 16-week-old PCV2-positive pigs than in their PCV2-negative counterparts. By site type, associations of coinfections and disease effects between PCV2-positive and -negative pigs were greatest in 3-site production systems.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In PCV2-positive pigs, coinfections with SIV, M hyopneumoniae, and PRRSV are important, having the greatest effect in the early to late nursery phase and in 3-site production systems.
Objective—To estimate the efficacy of a commercially available Salmonella enterica subunit vaccine on the subclinical shedding of S enterica in dairy cattle.
Design—Randomized, controlled trial.
Animals—175 mature cows on 2 dairy farms with a history of S enterica infection.
Procedures—25% of the mature cows from each herd were systematically randomized to receive an S enterica subunit vaccine following label guidelines. The remaining 75% of cows in each herd served as nonvaccinated controls. Fecal samples were collected from all cows at the time of initial vaccination (day 0), booster vaccination (day 14), 2 weeks following the booster vaccination (day 28), and 10 weeks following the start of the trial (day 70). All samples were processed on the day of collection and cultured for S enterica.
Results—651 fecal samples were obtained over the entire study period. Salmonella enterica was recovered from 46 (7.1%) of the samples. Shedding of S enterica was similar for vaccinated and nonvaccinated control cows on each of the collection dates.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study revealed no evidence that extralabel vaccination with a commercial subunit S enterica vaccine reduced shedding of S enterica in subclinically infected dairy cows in these herds.
Objective—To evaluate shedding patterns of Staphylococcus aureus, specifically the association between clonal relatedness and shedding patterns of S aureus for cows with naturally occurring S aureus intramammary infection.
Design—Longitudinal field study.
Sample—Milk samples from 22 lactating cows (29 mammary glands) of varied numbers of lactations on 2 dairies.
Procedures—Foremilk samples were collected weekly for 26 to 44 weeks during lactation from individual mammary glands. Milk samples were cultured bacteriologically with a 0.01-mL inoculum. Samples were considered culture positive for S aureus if ≥ 1 colony-forming units were obtained. Milk samples from known S aureus–positive mammary glands that were culture negative for S aureus or culture positive with a single colony of S aureus were cultured bacteriologically a second time with a 0.1-mL inoculum. Longitudinal shedding patterns of S aureus and the effect of strain type on ln(colony forming unit count) were examined.
Results—With the 0.01-mL inoculum, 914 of 1,070 (85%) samples were culture positive. After reculturing of negative samples with a 0.1-mL inoculum, 1,011 (95%) of the samples were culture positive. There was no significant difference in the detection of S aureus between genotypic clusters when either the 0.01- or 0.1-mL inoculum was used. There was no significant difference in the amount of shedding between mammary glands infected with isolates in genotypic cluster 1 or 2. No consistent shedding patterns were identified among or within cows. There was a significant difference in mammary gland linear score and test day (composite) linear score between mammary glands infected with isolates in genotypic clusters 1 and 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—S aureus was shed consistently in cows with naturally occurring intramammary infection in cows, and regardless of the pulsotype, variations in the amount of S aureus shedding had no significant effect on the ability to detect S aureus with a 0.1-mL inoculum.
Objective—To evaluate variation of drinking-water flow rates in swine finishing barns and the relationship between drinker flow rate and plasma tetracycline concentrations in pigs housed in different pens.
Design—Cross-sectional (phase 1) and cohort (phase 2) studies.
Sample Population—13 swine finishing farms (100 barns with 7,122 drinkers) in phase 1 and 100 finishing-stage pigs on 2 finishing farms (1 barn/farm) in phase 2.
Procedures—In phase 1, farms were evaluated for water-flow variation, taking into account the following variables: position of drinkers within the barn, type of drinker (swing or mounted), pig medication status, existence of designated sick pen, and existence of leakage from the waterline. In phase 2, blood samples were collected from 50 pigs/barn (40 healthy and 10 sick pigs) in 2 farms at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after initiation of water-administered tetracycline HCl (estimated dosage, 22 mg/kg [10 mg/lb]). Plasma tetracycline concentrations were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography.
Results—Mean farm drinker flow rates ranged from 1.44 to 2.77 L/min. Significant differences in flow rates existed according to drinker type and whether tetracycline was included in the water. Mean drinker flow rates and plasma tetracycline concentrations were significantly different between the 2 farms but were not different between healthy and sick pigs. The plasma tetracycline concentrations were typically < 0.3 μg/mL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many factors affected drinker flow rates and therefore the amount of medication pigs might have received. Medication of pigs with tetracycline through water as performed in this study had questionable therapeutic value.
Objective—To evaluate effects of quaternary benzo(c)phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) against Salmonella spp and determine effects on growth performance, organism shedding, and gastrointestinal tract integrity in pigs inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Sample—36 Salmonella isolates and twenty 5-week-old pigs.
Procedures—Minimum inhibitory concentration of QBAs against the Salmonella isolates was determined. Pigs were allocated to 4 groups and inoculated with Salmonella organisms. Pigs received diets supplemented with 1.5 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed, 0.75 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed, or 59.4 g of chlortetracycline/1,000 kg of feed or a nonsupplemented (control) diet. Pigs were weighed on day 0 and then weekly for 40 days. Fecal samples were collected to quantify Salmonella organisms. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was evaluated by measuring transepithelial resistance.
Results—In vitro, 9 of 36 (25%) Salmonella isolates were inhibited at 90 μg of QBAs/mL; all 36 were inhibited at 179 μg of QBAs/mL. Diets containing QBAs significantly decreased Salmonella spp shedding; shedding was lower 40 days after inoculation for pigs fed diets containing QBAs or chlortetracycline than for pigs fed the control diet. Growth performance was similar for pigs fed diets containing QBA or chlortetracycline. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was improved in pigs fed the diet containing 1.5 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QBAs and chlortetracycline decreased Salmonella spp shedding but did not differ with regard to growth performance. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was better, albeit not significantly, in pigs fed diets containing QBAs. Further investigation into the role of QBAs and their mechanism as an immunomodulator is necessary.