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  • Author or Editor: Wolfgang K. Kähn x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of intranasal oxygen administration on blood gas variables and outcome in neonatal calves with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 neonatal calves with RDS.

Procedures—Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2) before and after intranasal administration of oxygen were analyzed.

Results—There were significant increases in PaO 2 and SaO 2 in the first 24 hours after oxygen administration was begun, with mean ± SD PaO 2 increasing from 38.4 ± 8.8 mm Hg to 58.7 ± 17.8 mm Hg during the first 3 hours of treatment. Calves with PaO 2 > 55 mm Hg within the first 12 hours after oxygen administration was begun had a significantly higher survival rate (9/10) than did calves that did not reach this threshold (4/10).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that intranasal oxygen administration was a simple method of improving blood gas variables in neonatal calves with RDS and that PaO 2 could be used to predict outcome.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of electrolytes, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and hemoglobin; activities of some enzymes; and Hct and number of leukocytes and erythrocytes of newborn calves in relation to the degree of acidosis and treatment with a hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution.

Animals—20 acidotic newborn calves with a blood pH < 7.2 and 22 newborn control calves with a blood pH ≥ 7.2.

Procedures—Approximately 10 minutes after birth, acidotic calves were treated by IV administration of 5% NaHCO3 solution. The amount of hypertonic solution infused was dependent on the severity of the acidosis.

Results—Treatment resulted in a significant increase in the mean ± SEM base excess from −8.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L immediately after birth to 0.3 ± 1.1 mmol/L 120 minutes later. During the same period, sodium concentration significantly increased from 145.3 ± 0.8 mmol/L to 147.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L. Mean chloride concentration before NaHCO3 administration was significantly lower in the acidotic calves (99.6 ± 1.1 mmol/L) than in the control calves (104.1 ± 0.9 mmol/L). Calcium concentration in acidotic calves decreased significantly from before to after treatment. Concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus were not affected by treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of hypertonic NaHCO3 solution to acidotic neonatal calves did not have any adverse effects on plasma concentrations of several commonly measured electrolytes or enzyme activities. The treatment volume used was smaller, compared with that for an isotonic solution, which makes it more practical for use in field settings.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine milk flow, somatic cell counts (SCCs), and the incidence of clinical mastitis in cows that had undergone theloresectoscopy for treatment of teat stenosis caused by mucosal detachment in the region of the streak canal or Fürstenberg's rosette.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 cows with teat stenosis that were treated via theloresectoscopy.

Procedure—Medical records of eligible cows were reviewed. Additional data regarding milking ease, SCC, development of clinical mastitis of the affected gland, and whether the cow remained in the herd were collected via owner-completed questionnaires.

Results—49 of 52 questionnaires were completed. At referral, teat sinusitis was diagnosed in 29 of 52 cows. Milk flow was normal in 38 of 41 treated teats at discharge and in 24 of 40 during the next lactation. Thirteen of 49 cows were culled during the next lactation because of abnormal udder health. High SCC and teat sinusitis at referral and development of clinical mastitis during the 10-day period after surgery resulted in high SCCs in the remainder of the current lactation. The incidence of clinical mastitis during the remainder of the current and during the next lactation was higher in cows that had teat sinusitis at the time of surgery, compared with those that did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Teat stenoses resulting from mucosal lesions in the region of the streak canal or Fürstenberg's rosette may be successfully treated via theloresectoscopy. Inflammation of the teat sinus and gland at the time of surgery may adversely affect udder health. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1119–1123)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association