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  • Author or Editor: Winnie L. Ybarra x
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Case Description—An 8-week-old female domestic shorthair cat was treated for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with surgical ligation. Seven weeks postoperatively, the cat was evaluated because of increased upper respiratory noise, inspiratory stridor, wheezing, and episodes of intermittent open-mouth breathing that had developed 1 week following the surgical ligation.

Clinical Findings—The cat was sedated, and examination of the larynx revealed left-sided laryngeal paralysis.

Treatment and Outcome—At the time left-sided laryngeal paralysis was diagnosed, the clinical signs of laryngeal dysfunction were not considered severe enough to warrant surgical intervention. No treatment was administered, and the owner monitored the cat for respiratory distress and worsening of clinical signs for an additional 5 months. During those 5 months, the clinical signs improved but persisted. Seven months after PDA ligation, the cat was again sedated and the larynx examined. The examination revealed persistent left arytenoid dysfunction, which was believed to be the result of permanent damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve that was sustained during the surgical ligation of the PDA. The owner was counseled about surgical and medical treatment options for laryngeal paralysis but elected to forego treatment at that time.

Clinical Relevance—Unilateral laryngeal paralysis caused by iatrogenic damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve is a potential complication subsequent to surgical ligation of a PDA. The frequency of iatrogenically induced laryngeal paralysis is likely underestimated in small animal patients. Laryngoscopy should be performed in any small animal with a history of PDA attenuation and clinical signs of respiratory tract disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the performance of a veterinary urine dipstick paddle (UDP) for diagnosis and identification of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and cats.

Design—Prospective, randomized, blinded study.

Sample—207 urine specimens.

Procedures—UDPs were inoculated by 2 investigators and incubated according to manufacturer's instructions. Results, including presence or absence of bacterial growth, organism counts, and identification of uropathogens, were compared between investigators and with microbiology laboratory results. A subset of UDPs with bacterial growth was submitted to the laboratory for confirmation.

Results—The laboratory reported 64 (30.9%) specimens had growth of bacteria. Bacterial growth was reported for 63 (30.4%) and 58 (28.0%) of the UDPs by investigators 1 and 2, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the UDP for detection of bacterial growth were 97.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for investigator 1 and 89.1% and 99.3%, respectively, for investigator 2. For UPDs with ≥ 105 colony-forming units/mL, organism counts correlated well between the laboratory and investigators 1 (r = 0.95) and 2 (r = 0.89). Pathogen identification was not always accurate. Only 25 of 33 (75.8%) UDPs submitted for confirmation yielded bacteria consistent with those isolated from the original bacterial culture of urine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The veterinary UDP system was a sensitive test for screening patients for bacterial UTI, but uropathogen identification was not always accurate. When UDPs have bacterial growth, a fresh urine specimen should be submitted to the laboratory to confirm the identity of the organisms and to permit antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association