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Objective—To identify the perceived market or client demand for dairy on-farm food safety services by veterinarians, the need for a food safety continuing education program, and the educational issues that might be addressed in an on-farm food safety curriculum.
Study Population—Consulting dairy veterinarians, government veterinarians located in California, and meat packers slaughtering cull dairy cows in California.
Procedure—Results of a questionnaire supplied to veterinarians and telephone interviews with meat packer representatives were analyzed by use of univariate and multivariate logistic regression procedures.
Results—Some meat packers considered the quality of incoming cull dairy cattle as a control point for food safety hazards. More than 50% of dairy and government- employed veterinarians believed that a current market for on-farm food safety services exists; > 85% believed that a potential market exists. Duration since graduation was negatively correlated with belief in a current market. Government-employed veterinarians were more likely to believe in a current market. Veterinarians were more likely to express a strong interest in offering on-farm food safety services if they believed a current market exists, indicated that they already offer such services, or listed residues and pathogens as the most important issues facing the dairy industry.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although a potential market for on-farm food safety services is perceived, veterinarians are unsure of their role in this area. New demands of meat packers slaughtering cull dairy cows may be the motivation practitioners need to broach the subject of food safety with clients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:479–484)
Objective—To characterize a 2007 bluetongue disease (BT) epizootic caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17 in sheep in the Big Horn Basin of Wyoming.
Animals—1,359 sheep from ranches in Wyoming and Montana.
Procedures—Information on clinical signs and history of BT in sheep was obtained from ranchers and attending veterinarians. At 3 to 6 months after the 2007 BT epizootic, blood samples were collected from rams, ewes, and lambs within and outside the Big Horn Basin; blood samples were also collected from lambs born in the spring of 2008. Sera were tested for anti-BTV antibodies by use of a competitive ELISA to determine the seroprevalence of BTV in sheep and to measure antibody titers. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR assays were used to determine long-term presence of the infectious virus or viral genetic material in RBCs of sheep.
Results—The percentage of sheep seropositive for BTV closely matched morbidity of sheep within flocks, indicating few subclinical infections. Flocks separated by as little as 1 mile had substantial variation in infection rate. Rams were infected at a higher rate than ewes. There was no evidence of BTV successfully overwintering in the area.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This epizootic appears to be a new intrusion of BTV into a naïve population of sheep previously protected geographically by the mountains surrounding the Big Horn Basin. Rams may have a higher infection rate as a result of increased vector biting opportunity because of the large surface area of the scrotum.
Objective—To compare replication of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) obtained from juvenile cattle, sheep, white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and black-tailed deer (BTD; O hemionus columbianus).
Sample Population—Cultures of pulmonary artery ECs obtained from 3 cattle, 3 sheep, 3 WTD, and 1 BTD.
Procedure—Purified cultures of pulmonary artery ECs were established. Replication, incidence of infection, and cytopathic effects of prototype strains of BTV serotype 17 (BTV-17) and 2 serotypes of EHDV (EHDV-1), and (EHDV-2) were compared in replicate cultures of ECs from each of the 4 ruminant species by use of virus titration and flow cytometric analysis.
Results—All 3 viruses replicated in ECs from the 4 ruminant species; however, BTV-17 replicated more rapidly than did either serotype of EHDV. Each virus replicated to a high titer in all ECs, although titers of EHDV-1 were significantly lower in sheep ECs than in ECs of other species. Furthermore, all viruses caused extensive cytopathic effects and a high incidence of cellular infection; however, incidence of cellular infection and cytopathic effects were significantly lower in EHDV-1-infected sheep ECs and EHDV-2-infected BTD ECs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There were only minor differences in replication, incidence of infection, and cytopathic effects for BTV-17, EHDV-1, or EHDV-2 in ECs of cattle, sheep, BTD, and WTD. It is not likely that differences in expression of disease in BTV- and EHDV-infected ruminants are attributable only to species-specific differences in the susceptibility of ECs to infection with the 2 orbiviruses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:860–865)
Objective—To determine the level of clinical agreement between 2 methods for the measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE).
Design—Prospective case series.
Procedure—Oxygen consumption (O2) and CO2 production (CO2) were measured with an open-flow indirect calorimeter in healthy (n = 10) and ill (67) dogs. Measurements were collected at 3 time periods on 2 days. The O2 and the CO2 measurements were then used to calculate the REE values.
Results—Mean values of measured (MREE) and predicted (PREE) REEs in healthy dogs and a dog with medical illnesses or trauma were not significantly different. There was a significant difference on day 2 between the MREE and PREE in the group of dogs recovering from major surgery. More importantly, there was significant variation between the PREE and MREE on an individual-dog basis. The PREE only agreed to within ± 20% of the MREE in 51% to 57% of the dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The level of agreement between these two methods for determining the 24-hour REE was poor in individual dogs. The level of disagreement between the 2 methods indicates that these methods may not be used interchangeably in a clinical setting. Measurement of REE by use of indirect calorimetry may be the only reliable method of determining REE in an individual ill or healthy dog. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:58–64)
Objective—To assess accuracy and reliability of open-flow indirect calorimetry in dogs.
Animals—13 clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—In phase 1, oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight (VO2kg) was determined in 6 anesthetized dogs by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry before and after determination of VO2/kg by use of closed-circuit spirometry. In phase 2, four serial measurements of VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained in 7 awake dogs by use of indirect calorimetry on 2 consecutive days. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was calculated.
Results—Level of clinical agreement was acceptable between results of indirect calorimetry and spirometry. Mean VO2/kg determined by use of calorimetry before spirometry was significantly greater than that obtained after spirometry. In phase 2, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for REE and VO2 were 0.779 and 0.786, respectively, when data from all 4 series were combined. When the first series was discounted, ICC increased to 0.904 and 0.894 for REE and VO2, respectively. The most reliable and least variable measures of REE and VO2 were obtained when the first 2 series were discounted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Open-flow indirect calorimetry may be used clinically to obtain a measure of VO2 and an estimate of REE in dogs. Serial measurements of REE and VO2 in clinically normal dogs are reliable, but a 10-minute adaption period should be allowed, the first series of observations should be discounted, multiple serial measurements should be obtained, and REE. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1761–1767).