Objective—To determine the accuracy of 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography for quantification of tumor volume in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
Animals—10 dogs with biopsy-confirmed TCC.
Procedures—The urinary bladder of each dog was distended with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5.0 mL/kg), and masses were measured via 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography. Masses were also measured via 3-D ultrasonography after bladders were distended with 2.5 and 1.0 mL of saline solution/kg. Subsequently, the bladder was deflated and distended with CO2 (5.0 mL/kg); CT was performed after IV contrast medium administration. Tumor volumes were calculated via 3-D ultrasonography, 2-D ultrasonography, and CT (reference method) and compared via ANOVA, Deming regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess effects of bladder distension on 3-D tumor volume measurements. Repeatability of measurements was estimated via the coefficient of variation for each method.
Results—Repeatability was considered good for all 3 methods. There was no significant difference in tumor volume measurements obtained via 3-D ultrasonography at different degrees of urinary bladder distension. Results of Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots indicated excellent agreement between tumor volume measurement with 3-D ultrasonography and CT, but not between 2-D ultrasonography and CT.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tumor volume in dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder was accurately measured via 3-D ultrasonography. Use of 3-D ultrasonography can provide a less expensive and more practical method for monitoring response to treatment than CT and was more accurate than 2-D ultrasonography.
Objective—To test the hypotheses that the densities
of macrophages in the synovial membranes and capsules
of stifle joints in dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate
ligaments are greater than those of normal joints
and that those densities in affected joints are positively
correlated with the chronicity and severity of
Animals—17 dogs with naturally occurring rupture of
the cranial cruciate ligament and 5 healthy control
Procedure—All dogs underwent orthopedic and radiographic
evaluations. In affected dogs, duration of clinical
signs was used as an indicator of disease chronicity
and the severity of osteoarthritis in the stifle joint
was determined radiographically. Joint capsule specimens
were evaluated histologically; macrophages,
interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were identified
by use of immunocytochemical techniques.
Results—Compared with unaffected joints,
macrophage density was increased in all affected
joints. Duration of disease was significantly associated
with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis and
synovial macrophage density. Synovial macrophage
density was significantly associated with severity of
osteoarthritis and with the presence of interleukin-6
and tumor necrosis factor-α.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that synovial macrophages may be involved in the
development of pathologic changes (including osteophyte
formation) in the stifle joints of dogs with
osteoarthritis secondary to rupture of the cranial cruciate
ligament. Determination of the importance of synovial
macrophages in the development of changes in
osteoarthritic joints may result in new treatment strategies
that involve elimination of the deleterious effects
of those cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:493–499)
Objective—To determine the effects of diode laser palatoplasty on the soft palate in horses.
Animals—6 clinically normal horses and 6 euthanized horses from another study.
Procedures—6 horses underwent diode laser palatoplasty (treated horses); 3 received low-dose laser treatment (1,209 to 1,224 J), and 3 received high-dose treatment (2,302 to 2,420 J). Six other horses received no treatment (control horses). The upper respiratory tracts of all treated horses were evaluated immediately following surgery (day 0) and on days 2, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45. Horses were euthanized on day 45, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head was performed. The soft palate was removed from treated and control horses, evaluated grossly, and scored for edema, inflammation, and scarring. Soft palates from all horses were sectioned for histologic and biomechanical evaluations.
Results—Endoscopic examination revealed a significant increase in soft palate scarring and decrease in edema and inflammation in treated horses by day 7. Gross postmortem findings corresponded with MRI findings. Gross and histologic examination revealed a significant increase in scarring, edema, and inflammation at day 45. Histologic evaluation of palatal tissue from high-dose–treated horses revealed full-thickness injury of skeletal muscle, with atrophy of muscle fibers; findings in low-dose–treated horses indicated superficial injury to skeletal muscle. After surgery, treated horses had a significant decrease in soft palate elastic modulus, compared with control horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laser palatoplasty resulted in soft palate fibrosis and skeletal muscle loss; however, the fibrosis did not result in an increase in soft palate elastic modulus.
Objective—To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxic effects of deracoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
Animals—26 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring, histologically confirmed, measurableTCC of the urinary bladder.
Procedures—Dogs were treated PO with deracoxib at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/d (1.36 mg/lb/d) as a single-agent treatment for TCC. Tumor response was assessed via radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic mapping of urinary bladder masses. Toxic effects of deracoxib administration in dogs were assessed through clinical observations and hematologic and biochemical analyses.
Results—Of 24 dogs for which tumor response was assessed, 4 (17%) had partial remission, 17 (71%) had stable disease, and 3 (13%) had progressive disease; initial response could not be assessed in 2 of 26 dogs. The median survival time was 323 days. Median time to progressive disease was 133 days. Renal, hepatic, and gastrointestinal abnormalities attributed to deracoxib administration were noted in 4% (1/26), 4% (1/26), and 19% (5/26) of dogs, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that deracoxib was generally well tolerated by dogs and had antitumor activity against TCC.
Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic
effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with
piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma
Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.
Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.
Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin
(30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3
mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared
with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated
with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses)
Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission
with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or
doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly
different. Median duration of first remission
was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147
days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not
significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed
in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam
and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment
protocols were efficacious and well tolerated.
The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more
effective regarding response rate, remission duration,
or survival duration, compared with the control group
treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)