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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the accuracy of 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography for quantification of tumor volume in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.

Animals—10 dogs with biopsy-confirmed TCC.

Procedures—The urinary bladder of each dog was distended with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5.0 mL/kg), and masses were measured via 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography. Masses were also measured via 3-D ultrasonography after bladders were distended with 2.5 and 1.0 mL of saline solution/kg. Subsequently, the bladder was deflated and distended with CO2 (5.0 mL/kg); CT was performed after IV contrast medium administration. Tumor volumes were calculated via 3-D ultrasonography, 2-D ultrasonography, and CT (reference method) and compared via ANOVA, Deming regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess effects of bladder distension on 3-D tumor volume measurements. Repeatability of measurements was estimated via the coefficient of variation for each method.

Results—Repeatability was considered good for all 3 methods. There was no significant difference in tumor volume measurements obtained via 3-D ultrasonography at different degrees of urinary bladder distension. Results of Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots indicated excellent agreement between tumor volume measurement with 3-D ultrasonography and CT, but not between 2-D ultrasonography and CT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tumor volume in dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder was accurately measured via 3-D ultrasonography. Use of 3-D ultrasonography can provide a less expensive and more practical method for monitoring response to treatment than CT and was more accurate than 2-D ultrasonography.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypotheses that the densities of macrophages in the synovial membranes and capsules of stifle joints in dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments are greater than those of normal joints and that those densities in affected joints are positively correlated with the chronicity and severity of the disease.

Animals—17 dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament and 5 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—All dogs underwent orthopedic and radiographic evaluations. In affected dogs, duration of clinical signs was used as an indicator of disease chronicity and the severity of osteoarthritis in the stifle joint was determined radiographically. Joint capsule specimens were evaluated histologically; macrophages, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were identified by use of immunocytochemical techniques.

Results—Compared with unaffected joints, macrophage density was increased in all affected joints. Duration of disease was significantly associated with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis and synovial macrophage density. Synovial macrophage density was significantly associated with severity of osteoarthritis and with the presence of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synovial macrophages may be involved in the development of pathologic changes (including osteophyte formation) in the stifle joints of dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Determination of the importance of synovial macrophages in the development of changes in osteoarthritic joints may result in new treatment strategies that involve elimination of the deleterious effects of those cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:493–499)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of diode laser palatoplasty on the soft palate in horses.

Animals—6 clinically normal horses and 6 euthanized horses from another study.

Procedures—6 horses underwent diode laser palatoplasty (treated horses); 3 received low-dose laser treatment (1,209 to 1,224 J), and 3 received high-dose treatment (2,302 to 2,420 J). Six other horses received no treatment (control horses). The upper respiratory tracts of all treated horses were evaluated immediately following surgery (day 0) and on days 2, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45. Horses were euthanized on day 45, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head was performed. The soft palate was removed from treated and control horses, evaluated grossly, and scored for edema, inflammation, and scarring. Soft palates from all horses were sectioned for histologic and biomechanical evaluations.

Results—Endoscopic examination revealed a significant increase in soft palate scarring and decrease in edema and inflammation in treated horses by day 7. Gross postmortem findings corresponded with MRI findings. Gross and histologic examination revealed a significant increase in scarring, edema, and inflammation at day 45. Histologic evaluation of palatal tissue from high-dose–treated horses revealed full-thickness injury of skeletal muscle, with atrophy of muscle fibers; findings in low-dose–treated horses indicated superficial injury to skeletal muscle. After surgery, treated horses had a significant decrease in soft palate elastic modulus, compared with control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laser palatoplasty resulted in soft palate fibrosis and skeletal muscle loss; however, the fibrosis did not result in an increase in soft palate elastic modulus.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxic effects of deracoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring, histologically confirmed, measurableTCC of the urinary bladder.

Procedures—Dogs were treated PO with deracoxib at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/d (1.36 mg/lb/d) as a single-agent treatment for TCC. Tumor response was assessed via radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic mapping of urinary bladder masses. Toxic effects of deracoxib administration in dogs were assessed through clinical observations and hematologic and biochemical analyses.

Results—Of 24 dogs for which tumor response was assessed, 4 (17%) had partial remission, 17 (71%) had stable disease, and 3 (13%) had progressive disease; initial response could not be assessed in 2 of 26 dogs. The median survival time was 323 days. Median time to progressive disease was 133 days. Renal, hepatic, and gastrointestinal abnormalities attributed to deracoxib administration were noted in 4% (1/26), 4% (1/26), and 19% (5/26) of dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that deracoxib was generally well tolerated by dogs and had antitumor activity against TCC.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma in dogs.

Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) alone.

Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly different. Median duration of first remission was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147 days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment protocols were efficacious and well tolerated. The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more effective regarding response rate, remission duration, or survival duration, compared with the control group treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association