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Abstract

Objective—To quantitate changes in hoof wall growth and hoof morphology induced by mild exercise in Standardbreds.

Animals—18 Standardbreds.

Procedures—Horses were exercised at approximately 6 m/s (4,200 to 5,600 m/d) on 4 d/wk for 17 weeks. Both exercise (n = 9) and nonexercise (control group; 9) groups were housed in a large paddock throughout the study. At the beginning and end of the study, right forelimb feet of all horses were digitally photographed and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Hoof wall measurements were obtained from the images to evaluate hoof wall growth and morphometric variables. Data were compared between the groups and within each group via a quadratic model. Changes in each variable and pairwise correlations between variables were evaluated.

Results—Morphometric variables did not significantly differ between the control and exercise groups. However, differences within each group between the start and the end of the study were significant for several variables; overall, values for hoof wall variables increased and those for solar variables decreased. Between the beginning and the end of the study, the amount of variation in values of hoof capsule variables in the exercise group decreased to a greater extent, compared with control group findings. Patterns of pairwise correlations for variables differed between the groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Standardbreds, mild exercise for 17 weeks caused no significant changes in hoof wall growth or morphometric variables. Subtle changes may develop in equine hooves in response to loading, and mild exercise may not be a strong adaptive stimulus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of laparoscopic-assistedjejunostomy feeding tube (J-tube) placement in healthy dogs under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia and compare cardiopulmonary responses during this epidural anesthetic protocol with cardiopulmonary responses during general anesthesia for laparoscopic-assisted or open surgical J-tube placement.

Animals—15 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive open surgical J-tube placement under general anesthesia (n = 5dogs; group 1), laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under general anesthesia (5; group 2), or laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia (5; group 3). Cardiopulmonary responses were measured at baseline (time 0), every 5 minutes during the procedure (times 5 to 30 minutes), and after the procedure (after desufflation [groups 2 and 3] or at the start of abdominal closure [group 1]). Stroke volume, cardiac index, and O2 delivery were calculated.

Results—All group 3 dogs tolerated laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia. Comparison of cardiovascular parameters revealed a significantly higher cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, and O2 delivery in group 3 dogs, compared with group 1 and 2 dogs. Minimal differences in hemodynamic parameters were foundbetween groups undergoing laparoscopic-assistedandopen surgical J-tube placement under general anesthesia (ie, groups 1 and 2); these differences were not considered to be clinically important in healthy research dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sedation with epidural and local anesthesia provided satisfactory conditions for laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement in healthy dogs; this anesthetic protocol caused less cardiopulmonary depression than general anesthesia and may represent a better choice for J-tube placement in critically ill patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the dose-related cardiovascular and urine output (UrO) effects of dopamine hydrochloride and dobutamine hydrochloride, administered individually and in combination at various ratios, and identify individual doses that achieve target mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; 70 mm Hg) and cardiac index (CI; 150 mL/kg/min) in dogs during deep isoflurane anesthesia.

Animals—10 young clinically normal dogs.

Procedures—Following isoflurane equilibration at a baseline MAP of 50 mm Hg on 3 occasions, dogs randomly received IV administration of dopamine (3, 7, 10, 15, and 20 μg/kg/min), dobutamine (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 μg/kg/min), and dopamine-dobutamine combinations (3.5:1, 3.5:4, 7:2, 14:1, and 14:4 μg/kg/min) in a crossover study. Selected cardiovascular and UrO effects were determined following 20-minute infusions at each dose.

Results—Dopamine caused significant dose-dependent responses and achieved target MAP and CI at 7 μg/kg/min; dobutamine at 2 μg/kg/min significantly affected only CI values. At any dose, dopamine significantly affected UrO, whereas dobutamine did not. Target MAP and CI values were achieved with a dopamine-dobutamine combination at 7:2 μg/kg/min; a dopamine-related dose response for MAP and dopamine- and dobutamine-related dose responses for CI were identified. Changes in UrO were associated with dopamine only.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, a guideline dose for dopamine of 7 μg/kg/min is suggested; dobutamine alone did not improve MAP. Data regarding cardiovascular and UrO effects indicated that the combination of dopamine and dobutamine did not provide greater benefit than use of dopamine alone in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the cardiovascular effects of 60 minutes of abdominal insufflation with CO2 to an intra-abdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg in standing horses receiving a constant rate infusion of detomidine.

Animals—5 horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly allocated into treatment or control groups. A washout period of a minimum of 7 days separated the 2 experimental periods of the crossover study. Catheters were placed into the right atrium, pulmonary artery, jugular vein, and right transverse facial artery after lidocaine infiltration. All horses were sedated with detomidine (8.54 µg/kg/h, IV). Horses in the treatment group received abdominal insufflation with CO2 via a laparoscopic cannula to a final and constant intraabdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Systemic arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, core body temperature, and the pH and gas tensions of arterial and mixed venous blood were obtained. Cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance were calculated. Data were collected in 3 stages: preinsufflation (–10 and –5 minutes), insufflation (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes), and postinsufflation (70 and 80 minutes). The quality of sedation and level of analgesia were determined.

Results—The PaO2 of horses in the treatment group was significantly higher after 60 minutes of pneumoperitoneum than in the control group. Core body temperature decreased significantly from baseline in both groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A 60-minute period of abdominal insufflation to an intra-abdominal pressure of 15 mm Hg did not induce significant cardiovascular abnormalities in healthy horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:357–362)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify changes in hoof wall strain distribution associated with exercise and time in Standardbreds.

Animals—18 young adult Standardbreds.

Procedures—9 horses were exercised 4 d/wk for 30 to 45 minutes at a medium trot for 4 months; 9 nonexercised horses served as the control group. Rosette strain gauges were used to measure the principal surface strains at the toe, lateral quarter of the hoof wall (LQ), and medial quarter of the hoof wall (MQ) of the right forefoot at the beginning and end of the experiment. Midstance maximal (msϵ1) and minimal (msϵ2) principal and peak minimal principal (pkϵ2) surface strains were measured; SDs of each of those variables were also calculated. Results were compared through ANOVA of time and exercise effects between and within the groups.

Results—Both the exercised and nonexercised groups had changes in strain distribution in their hooves over time. The msϵ1 did not change significantly with exercise; however, it changed significantly in both groups at both hoof quarters over time. At the beginning of the study, mean msϵ2 and pkϵ2 values were significantly higher in the exercised group than in the control group at the MQ and LQ but not at the toe. At the end of the study, these values were significantly higher in the control group than in the exercised group at the toe but not at the MQ or LQ.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detected changes in hoof wall surface strain may indicate the ability of hoof capsule material to respond to exercise. A better understanding of hoof adaptation to applied forces may allow implementation of proper trimming and shoeing techniques to promote adaptation to exercise loads in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the survival rates of dogs and cats that underwent surgical treatment for traumatic diaphragmatic hernia within 24 hours of admission and determine whether timing of surgery affected perioperative survival rate.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—63 dogs and 29 cats treated surgically for traumatic diaphragmatic hernia.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to evaluate associations between perioperative survival rates and variables including timing of surgery in relation to admission and acute versus chronic diaphragmatic hernia.

Results—Among the 92 animals, 82 (89.1%) were discharged alive after surgery. Sixty-four (69.6%) patients received surgical intervention within 12 hours of admission, and 84 (91.3%) received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission. Median time from admission to discharge was 4 days (2 to 33 days). Data for acute cases (68 dogs and cats) were analyzed separately. Sixty-three (92.6%) patients with acute diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission to the hospital, and 59 (93.7%) of these patients were discharged alive. Twenty-nine (42.6%) patients with acute diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention within 24 hours of trauma, and 26 of 29 (89.7%) patients were discharged alive. An overall acute and chronic perioperative survival rate of 89.7% was observed in dogs and cats that received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results in 68 dogs and cats that underwent surgery within 24 hours of admission suggested that early surgical intervention for acute diaphragmatic hernia was associated with good perioperative survival rates. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:105–109)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of repeated use and resterilization on structural and functional integrity of microwave ablation (MWA) antennas.

SAMPLE 17 cooled-shaft MWA antennas (3 groups of 5 antennas/group and 2 control antennas).

PROCEDURES 1, 2, and 3 ablations in the livers of bovine cadavers were performed at the maximum recommended settings. Antennas were cleaned and sterilized in hydrogen peroxide plasma, and the process was repeated (reprocessing cycle; n = 6). Control antennas were only sterilized (6 times). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed, and antennas were microscopically assessed for damage.

RESULTS 6 cycles were completed. Thirteen of 15 MWA antennas remained functional for up to 4 cycles, 10 were functional after 5 cycles, and only 7 were functional after 6 cycles. Progressive tearing of the silicone coating of the antennas was observed, with a negative effect of the number of cycles for silicone tearing. Size of the ablation zone decreased mildly over time after cycles 5 and 6; however, this was not considered clinically relevant. No significant changes in the shape of ablation zones were detected. All cultures yielded negative results, except for an isolated case, which was considered a contaminant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Structural and functional integrity of the microwave antennas remained acceptable during repeated use and reprocessing for up to 4 cycles. However, there was a decrease in functional integrity at cycles 5 and 6. We suggest that these microwave antennas be subjected to > 3 reprocessing cycles. Antennas should be carefully examined before reuse.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess accuracy and reliability of open-flow indirect calorimetry in dogs.

Animals—13 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—In phase 1, oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight (VO2kg) was determined in 6 anesthetized dogs by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry before and after determination of VO2/kg by use of closed-circuit spirometry. In phase 2, four serial measurements of VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained in 7 awake dogs by use of indirect calorimetry on 2 consecutive days. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was calculated.

Results—Level of clinical agreement was acceptable between results of indirect calorimetry and spirometry. Mean VO2/kg determined by use of calorimetry before spirometry was significantly greater than that obtained after spirometry. In phase 2, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for REE and VO2 were 0.779 and 0.786, respectively, when data from all 4 series were combined. When the first series was discounted, ICC increased to 0.904 and 0.894 for REE and VO2, respectively. The most reliable and least variable measures of REE and VO2 were obtained when the first 2 series were discounted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Open-flow indirect calorimetry may be used clinically to obtain a measure of VO2 and an estimate of REE in dogs. Serial measurements of REE and VO2 in clinically normal dogs are reliable, but a 10-minute adaption period should be allowed, the first series of observations should be discounted, multiple serial measurements should be obtained, and REE. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1761–1767).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses.

Animals—7 horses with and 3 horses without a history of RAO.

Procedures—RAO-susceptible horses ranged in age from 17 to approximately 30 years, and control horses ranged in age from 7 to approximately 15 years. Pure mold cultures were derived from repeated culture of hay and identified via gene amplification and sequencing. Pulmonary function testing and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed before and after nebulization with a suspension of spores derived from 3 fungi, lipopolysaccharide, and 1-μm silica microspheres in all horses. This was followed by a 4-month washout period and a further pulmonary function test followed by saline (0.9% NaCl) solution challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage.

ResultsLichtheimia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Eurotium amstelodami were consistently identified in cultures of moldy hay. Nebulization with fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and microspheres induced significant increases in pleural pressure in RAO-susceptible but not control horses. Airway neutrophilia developed in both groups of horses with exposure to challenge material but more severely in RAO-susceptible horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that inhalation of fungal spores in combination with lipopolysaccharide and silica microspheres can induce disease exacerbation in susceptible horses and may thus be a useful model for future standardized studies of RAO in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of gentamicin, silver, or both additives in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) biofilm formation in vitro.

SAMPLE 4 preparations of PMMA beads (formed with no additive [control], gentamicin, silver, and gentamicin and silver).

PROCEDURES Beads from each group were exposed to 10 MRSP isolates known to be strong biofilm formers. Following incubation, the beads were rinsed to remove planktonic bacteria, then sonicated to dislodge biofilm-associated bacteria. Resulting suspensions were serially diluted, plated on blood agar, and incubated overnight; CFUs were counted. Variance of mean CFU counts following log10 transformation was analyzed among PMMA groups.

RESULTS None of the PMMA additives tested completely inhibited MRSP biofilm formation. There was a significant effect of gentamicin and gentamicin plus silver on this variable, compared with controls, but not of silver alone. There was no difference between gentamicin and gentamicin plus silver. When only isolates not susceptible to gentamicin were evaluated, there were no significant differences among PMMA additive groups. Within gentamicin-susceptible isolates, there was an impact of gentamicin and gentamicin plus silver, but no impact of silver alone and no difference between gentamicin and gentamicin plus silver.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gentamicin-impregnated PMMA was effective at reducing biofilm formation of gentamicin-susceptible MRSP isolates but had no effect on isolates not susceptible to gentamicin. Silver-impregnated PMMA had no effect on MRSP biofilm formation. Results suggested that gentamicin-impregnated PMMA may not be effective in vivo against MRSP isolates not susceptible to gentamicin. Antibacterial efficacy of silver should not be assumed without proper testing of the target bacteria and specific silver compound.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research