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Summary

Thirty-five dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma were treated with 5 doses of doxorubicin (30 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, every 2 weeks). Surgical excision of the primary tumor was performed 13 days after the second (n = 18) or third (n = 17) treatment, and the subsequent doxorubicin treatment was given the day following surgery. Resected tumors were evaluated histologically to determine response to preoperative chemotherapy (ie, percentage of the tumor that was necrotic). Survival data for the 35 dogs were compared with survival data for a historical control group, consisting of 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone.

Administration of doxorubicin at 2 week intervals was well tolerated. Three dogs were alive and did not have evidence of disease at the time of reporting. Of the remaining 32 dogs, 3 died or were euthanatized because of cardiomyopathy presumably caused by doxorubicin; 1 died suddenly 116 weeks after initiation of treatment; and the remaining 28 were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to distant metastases. Thirteen dogs (40.6%) were euthanatized because of pulmonary metastases, 10 dogs (31.3%) were euthanatized because of bone metastases, and 5 dogs (15.6%) were euthanatized because of metastases in other sites. The proportion of dogs euthanatized because of bone metastases was significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the study group than for the control group.

Median survival time for the 35 dogs that received doxorubicin was estimated to be 52.3 weeks, and 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 50.5 and 9.7%, respectively. Survival time was significantly (P < 0.0001) longer for these dogs than for control dogs. Percentage of the resected primary tumor that was necrotic ranged from 0 to 87% (mean, 24.9%). There was a significant (r = 0.39; P < 0.05) direct correlation between survival time and percentage of the tumor that was necrotic.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of high- and lowprotein diets with or without tryptophan supplementation on behavior of dogs with dominance aggression, territorial aggression, and hyperactivity.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—11 dogs with dominance aggression, 11 dogs with territorial aggression, and 11 dogs with hyperactivity.

Procedure—In each group, 4 diets were fed for 1 week each in random order with a transition period of not < 3 days between each diet. Two diets had low protein content (approximately 18%), and 2 diets had high protein content (approximately 30%). Two of the diets (1 low-protein and 1 high-protein) were supplemented with tryptophan. Owners scored their dog's behavior daily by use of customized behavioral score sheets. Mean weekly values of 5 behavioral measures and serum concentrations of serotonin and tryptophan were determined at the end of each dietary period.

Results—For dominance aggression, behavioral scores were highest in dogs fed unsupplemented high-protein rations. Tryptophan-supplemented low-protein diets were associated with significantly lower behavioral scores than low-protein diets without tryptophan supplements.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For dogs with dominance aggression, the addition of tryptophan to high-protein diets or change to a low-protein diet may reduce aggression. For dogs with territorial aggression, tryptophan supplementation of a low-protein diet may be helpful in reducing aggression. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:504–508)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Idarubicin, a new synthetic anthracycline analogue, was administered orally to 34 cats with spontaneous tumors. The maximum tolerated dosage was determined to be 2 mg/cat/d given for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Anorexia and leukopenia were found to be dose limiting in cats receiving the drug at a higher dosage. The most common toxicoses seen at the maximum tolerated dosage were leukopenia, anorexia, and vomiting; however, development of toxicoses was not found to be associated with sex, FeLV test result, tumor type, dosage, age, or weight.

Idarubicin (2 mg/cat/d for 3 days, q 3 wks) was used to treat 18 cats with lymphoma in which complete remission had been achieved by administration of other chemotherapeutic agents. Median remission duration for these cats was comparable to that reported for cats treated with other protocols. We concluded that orally administered idarubicin would be useful in the treatment of cats with lymphoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cisplatin was administered at a dosage of 50 mg/m2 of body surface to 69 dogs with various neoplasms. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive antiemetics according to 1 of the following 5 protocols: group 1, no antiemetic (control, n = 45 treatments); group 2, 0.4 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight (n = 52 treatments); group 3, 0.2 mg of butorphanol/kg (n = 19 treatments); group 4, 2 mg of cyproheptadine/kg (n = 48 treatments); and group 5, 1 mg of cyproheptadine/kg (n = 10 treatments). Randomization was performed for each dog prior to each treatment. Butorphanol was administered im immediately after completion of cisplatin infusion. Cyproheptadine was given orally 12 to 14 hours before and again immediately before cisplatin administration. The proportion of dogs that vomited in group 1 was 40 of 45 (89%). Butorphanol at a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg proved highly effective in preventing cisplatin-induced vomiting, reducing the proportion of dogs that vomited (10/52, 19%) compared with the control group.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Mitoxantrone was administered to 74 dogs with lymphoma at a dosage of 5.0 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, every 3 weeks. Thirty-four dogs had failed to respond to prior treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, which included doxorubicin (33 dogs). The remaining 40 dogs had not received prior treatment.

Complete remission was determined in 19 of 74 dogs (26%), 10 of which had not received prior treatment. The median duration of remission for these 10 dogs was 94 days (range, 49 to 440 days, with 2 dogs still alive at 370 and 440 days, respectively). Nine dogs that had received prior treatment had complete remission that lasted for a median of 126 days (range, 42 to 792 days, with 1 dog still alive at 792 days). The combined remission rate (complete remission plus partial remission) was 41%. Toxicosis was minimal, developing in only 9 dogs and requiring hospitalization of 2 dogs.

We concluded that the complete remission rate ascertained when mitoxantrone was the only treatment administered was low, compared with treatments that involved other chemotherapeutic agents; however, the combined remission rate of 41% indicated that mitoxantrone may be beneficial in the treatment of lymphoma in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To correlate substance P content of synovial fluid with prostaglandin E2 content, radiographic evidence of joint abnormality, and anatomic location of the joint for normal and osteoarthritic joints of horses.

Sample Population—Synovial fluid from 46 normal joints in 21 horses and 16 osteoarthritic joints in 10 horses.

Procedure—Normal and osteoarthritic joints were identified by clinical and radiographic examination, by response to nerve blocks, during scintigraphy or surgery, or by clinicopathologic evaluation. Substance P and prostaglandin E2 contents of synovial fluid were determined by radioimmunoassay. Radiographs of joints were assigned a numeric score reflecting severity of lesions. Joints were assigned a numeric score reflecting anatomic location.

Results—Median concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 were significantly increased in osteoarthritic joints, compared with normal joints. A significant correlation was found between concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 in synovial fluid, but a correlation was not detected between substance P concentration in synovial fluid and anatomic location of the joint or between radiographic scores of osteoarthritic joints and concentrations of substance P or prostaglandin E2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A correlation existed between concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 in synovial fluid obtained from normal and osteoarthritic joints. However, content of substance P in synovial fluid cannot be predicted by the radiographic appearance of the joint or its anatomic location. Substance P and prostaglandin E2 may share an important and related role in the etiopathogenesis of osteoarthritis, lending credence to the importance of neurogenic inflammation in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 714–718)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Long-term follow-up information pertaining to 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone was collected from 17 veterinary institutions. The majority (72.5%) of dogs died or were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to metastases. The first clinically apparent sites of metastasis were the lungs (60.8% of total), the skeleton (5.2%), or both (4.6%). A Kaplan-Meier survivorship distribution was plotted on the basis of available survival time data in all 162 dogs. The mean and median survival times were estimated to be 19.8 and 19.2 weeks, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 11.5 and 2.0% respectively.

Statistically significant relationships were not found between survival time and reporting institution, gender, site of primary tumor, whether the primary tumor was proximally or distally located, whether the primary tumor was located in the forelimb or hind limb, whether presurgical biopsy was performed, and whether death was tumor related. A significant (P < 0.01) quadratic relationship was found between age and survival time. Survival time was longest in dogs 7 to 10 years old and was shorter in older and younger dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association