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Objective—To measure concentrations of sucrose in the serum of captive dolphins after oral administration of a sucrose solution and determine the suitability of this method for use as a test to detect gastric ulcers.

Animals—8 adult captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from the ventral fluke vein of dolphins before and 45 minutes after oral administration of 500 mL of solution containing 25 or 50 g of sucrose; oral administration was achieved by use of gastric intubation. Serum was separated, diluted in a solution of 90% acetonitrile-to10% water that contained 10 ng of an internal standard (trichlormethiazide)/μL, mixed, and centrifuged. Supernatant was analyzed by use of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

Results—Serum sucrose concentrations of dolphins were at or less than the limits of detection before oral administration. Values after administration of sucrose solution varied among dolphins and were higher and more variable after administration of 50 g, compared with concentrations after administration of 25 g.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum sucrose concentrations in samples collected during routine health evaluations of captive dolphins can be reliably measured by use of LC-MS-MS. Correlating serum sucrose concentrations with endoscopic observations of the gastric mucosa of dolphins will validate this approach for use in screening for the prevalence and severity of gastric ulcers and determining the efficacy of treatment regimens.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effect of high- and lowprotein diets with or without tryptophan supplementation on behavior of dogs with dominance aggression, territorial aggression, and hyperactivity.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—11 dogs with dominance aggression, 11 dogs with territorial aggression, and 11 dogs with hyperactivity.

Procedure—In each group, 4 diets were fed for 1 week each in random order with a transition period of not < 3 days between each diet. Two diets had low protein content (approximately 18%), and 2 diets had high protein content (approximately 30%). Two of the diets (1 low-protein and 1 high-protein) were supplemented with tryptophan. Owners scored their dog's behavior daily by use of customized behavioral score sheets. Mean weekly values of 5 behavioral measures and serum concentrations of serotonin and tryptophan were determined at the end of each dietary period.

Results—For dominance aggression, behavioral scores were highest in dogs fed unsupplemented high-protein rations. Tryptophan-supplemented low-protein diets were associated with significantly lower behavioral scores than low-protein diets without tryptophan supplements.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For dogs with dominance aggression, the addition of tryptophan to high-protein diets or change to a low-protein diet may reduce aggression. For dogs with territorial aggression, tryptophan supplementation of a low-protein diet may be helpful in reducing aggression. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:504–508)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To correlate substance P content of synovial fluid with prostaglandin E2 content, radiographic evidence of joint abnormality, and anatomic location of the joint for normal and osteoarthritic joints of horses.

Sample Population—Synovial fluid from 46 normal joints in 21 horses and 16 osteoarthritic joints in 10 horses.

Procedure—Normal and osteoarthritic joints were identified by clinical and radiographic examination, by response to nerve blocks, during scintigraphy or surgery, or by clinicopathologic evaluation. Substance P and prostaglandin E2 contents of synovial fluid were determined by radioimmunoassay. Radiographs of joints were assigned a numeric score reflecting severity of lesions. Joints were assigned a numeric score reflecting anatomic location.

Results—Median concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 were significantly increased in osteoarthritic joints, compared with normal joints. A significant correlation was found between concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 in synovial fluid, but a correlation was not detected between substance P concentration in synovial fluid and anatomic location of the joint or between radiographic scores of osteoarthritic joints and concentrations of substance P or prostaglandin E2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A correlation existed between concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 in synovial fluid obtained from normal and osteoarthritic joints. However, content of substance P in synovial fluid cannot be predicted by the radiographic appearance of the joint or its anatomic location. Substance P and prostaglandin E2 may share an important and related role in the etiopathogenesis of osteoarthritis, lending credence to the importance of neurogenic inflammation in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 714–718)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research